FCP-COMPLEX is a newly-developed solution that contains fluoride, calcium, and phosphoric acid. It has the potential to reinforce caries-affected dentin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of FCP-COMPLEX on the morphology of bovine artificial caries-affected dentin (ACAD). FCP-COMPLEX, 2% sodium fluoride solution, and distilled water were applied to bovine ACAD and the effect on acid-induced damage was observed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate morphology after acid application. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for mapping and quantitative analyses of the dentin surface, and for line analysis of dentin-adhesive interface. The FCP-COMPLEX precipitated on the dentin surface and fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus were detected at a higher level in the FCP-COMPLEX group. The area of acid damage in caries-affected dentin was reduced by FCP-COMPLEX. In conclusion, FCP-COMPLEX significantly increased the deposition of fluoride onto bovine ACAD and inhibited demineralization.
The aim of this study was to investigate the occlusal contact area (OCA) in individual teeth during low-level tooth clenching in 24 healthy participants. Before measurements were made, the 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined. At baseline, all subjects were instructed to close their mouth and touch the opposing teeth with minimal force. Occlusal contact was recorded during three jaw motor tasks (baseline, 20% MVC, and 40% MVC) using a blue silicone material. OCA thickness was determined from images and defined on five levels: level 1 (0-149 µm), level 2 (0-89 µm), level 3 (0-49 µm), level 4 (0-29 µm), and level 5 (0-4 µm). Premolar and molar OCAs increased significantly from baseline to 20% MVC and 40% MVC. The OCA of each anterior tooth did not change significantly with increasing clenching intensity at all levels. Our findings suggest that premolar and molar OCAs may be altered by low-intensity clenching, affecting the teeth and periodontal tissues.
A shift in caries prevalence from occlusal surfaces to approximal surfaces has been demonstrated by epidemiological studies. Two recent meta-analyses evaluated the performance of visual examination and radiography for carious lesion detection, and reported low sensitivity but high specificity for early approximal caries detection. This suggests that the conventional methods have a higher risk of failing to detect approximal lesions. Consequently, in caries susceptible populations, there is a risk of progression of non-cavitated lesions to irreversible tooth destruction before the lesions are detected. This paper aims to review the performance of unconventional and novel methods for approximal caries detection. In vitro and in vivo studies identified through a MEDLINE search using keywords such as caries detection, approximal caries detection, light fluorescence and dental caries, and transillumination and dental caries were reviewed. The unconventional methods known to be used for approximal caries detection and included in this review are: cone beam computed tomography, fiber-optic trans-illumination, digital imaging fiber optic trans-illumination, near-infrared digital imaging transillumination, optical coherence tomography, laser fluorescence, ultrasound, and LED reflection and refraction.
The aim of this study was to examine the expression of HOXA7 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its correlation with clinical features. Sixty tissue specimens were collected from 60 OSCC patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Stomatological Hospital affiliated to Guizhou Medical University. Sixty specimens of normal oral tissue were also collected from 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Expression of HOXA7 was assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Relative to the control group, HOXA7 was up-regulated in OSCC tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05), and HOXA7 expression in poorly differentiated cancers was higher than that in highly differentiated cancers (P < 0.05). HOXA7 expression was higher in patients with stage III and IV cancer than in patients with stage I and II cancer (P < 0.05). Higher HOXA7 expression was also associated with the presence of vascular and nerve invasion, and lymph node and distant metastasis. HOXA7 expression in OSCC is markedly increased at both the mRNA and protein levels, and this is positively correlated with clinical stage and the degree of tumor differentiation. These data suggest that HOXA7 could serve as a diagnostic marker for OSCC or a treatment target.
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