We used optical coherence tomography to examine the effect of a coating material containing surface reaction-type pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler on primary enamel demineralization in 18 extracted human primary teeth. The pulp was removed, and each tooth was ultrasonically cleaned with distilled water. Six teeth were treated with 0.1-M lactic acid buffer solution (De group). In the second group (n = 6), a thin film of coating material was applied before demineralization (PRG group). A third group (Control group; n = 6) was maintained in artificial saliva. Using optical coherence tomography, we measured peak signal intensity (dB) and width at 1/e2 (µm) at predetermined locations on the enamel surface and calculated integrated values. All data were analyzed with ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test (α = 0.05). Although changes in integrated values differed between groups, there was a small but significant increase in the Control group and a small but significant decrease in the De group. In the PRG group, integrated values were significantly higher at 7 days after the start of the experiment and significantly increased thereafter. Our findings indicate that a coating material containing S-PRG fillers may prevent primary enamel demineralization.
Dental pulp is known to play crucial roles in homeostasis of teeth and periodontal tissue. Although resorption of bone around the roots of nonvital teeth is occasionally observed in clinical practice, little is known about the role of dental pulp in osteoclastogenesis. Here we evaluated the effects of conditioned medium (CM) from rat dental pulp on osteoclastogenesis. It was found that the CM reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclasts, but did not alter the mRNA levels of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 and TRAP. To further understand the mechanism behind these results, we evaluated the effects of CM on osteoclast precursors and found that the CM removed cell processes, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of attached cells and an increase in the number of freely floating cells. Furthermore, the CM suppressed the mRNA levels of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, which are involved in cell adhesiveness and spreading. Collectively, the present results show that CM from dental pulp serves as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis by reducing the number and adhesiveness of osteoclast precursors, suggesting novel therapeutic applicability for osteoporosis.
This study investigated differences in periodontal health variables between buccally impacted maxillary canines (BIMC) and palatally impacted maxillary canines (PIMC) after surgical-orthodontic treatment with open technique. Nineteen patients were enrolled: 10 with unilateral BIMC (5 men, 5 women; mean age 18.50 ± 1.96 years) and 9 with unilateral PIMC (4 men, 5 women; mean age 19.44 ± 2.40 years). Probing depth and keratinized tissue were recorded 12 months after surgical-orthodontic treatment, and the differences between the 2 sides were analyzed as primary outcomes. In addition, data for BIMC and PIMC were directly compared. In the BIMC group, probing depths were significantly higher for lateral incisors than for the untreated side (P = 0.044), and keratinized tissue values were significantly lower for canines than for the untreated side (P = 0.006). No significant differences were observed in the PIMC group. In BIMC, surgical-orthodontic treatment with open technique resulted in loss of periodontal keratinized tissue in the treated tooth and periodontal attachment loss in adjacent lateral incisors. However, the periodontal status of PIMC was not affected by surgical-orthodontic treatment with open technique.
This study investigated the effect of the vertical position of the canine on changes in the frictional/orthodontic (F/O) force ratio of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires during the initial levelling phase of orthodontic treatment. Frictional and orthodontic forces were measured by using low-friction brackets and Ni-Ti archwires with three different cross-sectional sizes and force types. To simulate canine malocclusion (first premolar extraction case), the upper right canine was displaced gingivally by 1 to 3 mm and the inter-bracket distance between the upper right lateral incisor and second premolar was set at 15 mm or 20 mm. A three-point bending test was performed to measure the orthodontic force of each Ni-Ti archwire. Frictional forces were measured with a universal testing machine and dental arch models by pulling parallel to the end of the archwire at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. F/O force ratio was calculated and analysed statistically. At a displacement of 3 mm, few archwires had F/O force ratios of less than 1.0, at which orthodontic force overcame frictional force, thus ensuring extrusion of the canine. For effective tooth movement, orthodontists should use Ni-Ti archwires with an F/O force ratio of less than 1.0.
Once a tooth develops deep caries and the dental pulp tissue is irreversibly infected, the infected dental pulp tissue should be removed, and filling material should be placed in the root canal. Endodontically treated teeth are prone to root fracture or periapical periodontitis; however, dental pulp tissue has the potential to prevent root fracture or periapical periodontitis. Therefore, dental pulp regeneration after pulpectomy may help prolong tooth life. In this study, a new method of dental pulp regeneration was developed. Vascular endothelial growth factor-adsorbed collagen gel was injected into the root canal of a prepared root canal model, placed into the dorsum of a rat, and cultured for 3 weeks. After retrieving the implant, histological analysis was performed. It was found that rat somatic cells were recruited into the root apex of the transplanted root canal model. These findings suggest a new potential technique for engineering dental pulp tissue.
Prefrontal cortex activity is modulated by flavor and taste stimuli and changes during swallowing. We hypothesized that changes in the modulation of prefrontal cortex activity by flavor and taste were associated with swallowing movement and evaluated brain activity during swallowing in patients with dysphagia. To evaluate prefrontal cortex activity in dysphagia patients during swallowing, change in oxidized hemoglobin (z-score) was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy while dysphagia patients and healthy controls swallowed sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly. Total z-scores were positive during swallowing of flavored/unsweetened jelly and negative during swallowing of unflavored/sweetened jelly in controls but negative during swallowing of sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly in dysphagia patients. These findings suggest that taste and flavor during food swallowing are associated with positive and negative z-scores, respectively. Change in negative and positive z-scores may be useful in evaluating brain activity of dysphagia patients during swallowing of sweetened and unsweetened food.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (ss-OCT) for detecting calculus and root cementum during periodontal therapy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were taken before and after removal of subgingival calculus from extracted teeth and compared with non-decalcified histological sections. Porcine gingival sheets of various thicknesses were applied to the root surfaces of extracted teeth with calculus and OCT images were taken. OCT images were also taken before and after scaling and root planing (SRP) in human patients. In vitro, calculus was clearly detected as a white-gray amorphous structure on the root surface, which disappeared after removal. Cementum was identified as a thin, dark-gray layer. The calculus could not be clearly observed when soft tissues were present on the root surface. Clinically, supragingival calculus and cementum could be detected clearly with OCT, and subgingival calculus in the buccal cervical area of the anterior and premolar teeth was identified, which disappeared after SRP. Digital processing of the original OCT images was useful for clarifying the calculus. In conclusion, ss-OCT showed potential as a periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting cementum and subgingival calculus, although the practical applications of subgingival imaging remain limited.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of orthodontic forces (OF) on the proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). The experimental sample consisted of 6 premolars extracted from 2 patients. After application of OF for 1 month, the hPDLSCs were separated from the primary cultured PDL cells using magnetic-activated cell sorting. The cell proliferation rate was assessed using a 3-[45-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The hPDLSCs were cultured in osteogenic medium, and the osteogenic differentiation was analyzed on day 7 and 14 using alkaline phosphatase staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. The gene expression level of osteogenic markers and angiogenic markers were measured and normalized. The results showed that the application of OF increased the proliferation rates, the expression of osteogenic factors, and the expression of angiogenic factors of hPDLSCs. These findings suggest that OF can serve as a potent positive modulator of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs.
A clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CCEOT) affecting an extraosseous site is described. A 60-year-old male patient presented with gingival swelling on the lingual side of the anterior mandible. The results of biopsy suggested clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, and marginal resection of the mandible was performed. The resected specimen was composed of eosinophilic and clear cells with deposits of amyloid-like material. The clear cells exhibited granules that were positive for PAS. There was no calcification in the resected lesion. Based on these features, the conclusive diagnosis was peripheral CCEOT without calcification. No signs of recurrence were evident after 3 years of follow-up.
We investigated the effect of cervical marginal relocation (CMR) on marginal sealing with two different viscosity resin composites, before adhesive cementation of composite computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) overlays. Standardized MOD cavities prepared in 39 human molars were randomly assigned to three groups. The proximal margins on the mesial side were located 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction. On the distal side of the tooth, the margins were located 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction. In Groups 1 and 2, mesial proximal boxes were elevated with a hybrid composite (GC Essentia MD) and a flowable composite (GC G-ænial Universal Flo), respectively. CMR was not performed in Group 3. The overlays were adhesively cemented, and interfacial leakage was quantified by scoring the depth of silver nitrate penetration along the adhesive interfaces. Leakage score at the dentin-CMR composite interface did not significantly differ between the two tested composites but was significantly lower for Group 3. In all groups, scores were significantly higher at the dentin interface than at the enamel interface. These results indicate that the performance of flowable and microhybrid resin composites, as indicated by marginal sealing ability, is comparable for CMR.