Purpose: After tooth extraction, preservation of the alveolar ridge by socket grafting attenuates bone resorption. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and SP7/Osterix (OSX) are transcription factors playing an important role in osteoblast differentiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) on osteoblast-related gene and protein expression after socket grafting.
Methods: Alveolar bone and new bone after CO3Ap grafting were collected at the time of implant placement. Levels of mRNA for RUNX2, SP7/OSX, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), BMP7 and platelet derived growth factor B were determined by real-time PCR. Immunostaining was performed using antibodies against RUNX2, SP7/OSX, vimentin and cytokeratin. To evaluate bone resorption rates, cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging was performed after socket grafting and before implant placement.
Results: CBCT imaging showed that the average degree of bone resorption at the CO3Ap graft site was 7.15 ± 3.79%. At the graft sites, levels of SP7/OSX and BMP2 mRNA were significantly increased. Replacement of CO3Ap with osteoid was evident histologically, and in the osteoid osteoblast-like cells were stained for SP7/OSX and vimentin.
Conclusion: These results show that gene expression of both SP7/OSX and BMP2 can be induced by CO3Ap, suggesting that increased expression of SP7/OSX and vimentin may be involved in the BMP pathway.
Purpose: To assess the sensitivity and the effect of topical lidocaine on the tongue by quantitative sensory testing, comparing healthy middle-aged female subjects with healthy young female subjects.
Methods: Sixteen healthy female subjects including eight in their fifties and eight in their twenties participated. They participated in two sessions at a 2-week interval in randomized order: lidocaine (experimental session) or placebo gel (placebo session) was applied on the tongue tip for 5min. The following parameters were taken on the tongue tip before and after application of the gel in each session: tactile detection threshold (TDT), filament-prick pain detection threshold (FPT), and numerical rating scale (NRS).
Results: An increase of both TDT and FPT and a decrease of NRS were found after lidocaine application in both middle-aged and young female subjects. In the elder females, an increase of TDT, FPT, and NRS was also found after placebo gel application. However, the changes were not statistically significant, except for FPT in middle-aged subjects.
Conclusion: The reactions found after lidocaine application in middle-aged female subjects could be due to habituation as well as to the post-application effect of placebo gel. Placebo-induced changes appeared more pronounced in the elder females.
Customized posts-and-cores have been widely used for improved fitness within a prepared post space. However, in comparison to direct restoration, they necessitate an increased number of appointments for patients. A 24-year-old man presented with a maxillary left canine that had fractured due to trauma 10 months previously. For this case, a digital process was used for simultaneous restoration with a personalized titanium post-and-core and a zirconia crown achieved with an intraoral scanner (IOS) and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM). This workflow allowed the restoration to be completed in 2 visits, facilitating more effective and predictable treatment, with reduced time and cost for the patient.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure residual monomer, cell adhesion, and cell viability of 3-dimensional printable permanent resin (PR), hybrid ceramic block (HCB), and indirect composite (IC) produced with additive, subtractive, and conventional techniques.
Methods: Five 8 × 8 × 2 mm3 samples of each material were prepared for each experiment. In a 24 h period, monomer release was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and cell viability and adhesion were evaluated with the water-soluble tetrazolium salt test. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 26.0 statistical software, and results were regarded as significant at α = 0.05.
Results: Monomer release (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate) was significantly higher in the IC group. Mean cell viability was significantly lower in the HCB group than in the IC group.
Conclusion: All monomers in the tested materials were released at rates that were below clinical significance. Cell adhesion rates in the groups were similar. Cytotoxic response was classified as minor in the HCB and PR groups and non-cytotoxic in the IC group.
Purpose: This study investigated the efficacy of various antiseptics for disinfection of rubber dams used during endodontic treatment, the duration of disinfection effectiveness, and the disinfection protocol employed by dental schools in Thailand.
Methods: The efficacy of 10% povidone-iodine, 1.5% tincture iodine and 70% ethyl alcohol in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) on the rubber dam was investigated. Time duration of disinfection was evaluated at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. The two-step disinfection method adopted at Thai dental school was examined. Independent t-test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by a Dunnett’s test was used for statistical analysis.
Results: Among the three antiseptics, 10% povidone and 1.5% tincture iodine eradicated the microorganisms completely, whereas 70% ethyl alcohol did not achieve a statistically significant decrease. The duration of sterilization effectiveness was 120 min for 10% povidone-iodine, but bacteria were eliminated only at 0 min by 1.5% tincture iodine. The results also indicated that the two-step protocol scarcely eliminated the microorganisms.
Conclusion: The best antiseptic for rubber dam disinfection is 10% povidone-iodine, which remains effective for 120 min. The two-step protocol typically practiced in Thai dental schools needs to be updated. The use of 10% povidone-iodine alone is adequate for complete eradication of E. faecalis and C. albicans.
Abstract: Various neuropathies of the cranil nerves can accompany trigeminal neuropathic pain attributed to space-occupying lesions. In this case report, the patient presented with persistent intraoral pain and numbness on the right side of the face. Cranial nerve examination revealed dysfunctional eye movements, diplopia, and mechanical hyposensitivity in the mandibular region. The patient was diagnosed with neuropathy due to intracranial lesions and referred to the Department of Neurosurgery and Otorhinolaryngology. The patient was suspected of having malignant lymphoma and is currently undergoing neurosurgical intervention. This article discusses the importance of the examination of the cranial nerve for patients with persistent pain in the trigeminal nerve distribution.
Characterization of the metal component of dental restorations and fixed prostheses is useful for the treatment of dental metal allergies and personal identification. This study aimed to describe the composition of metal elements in dental restorations and fixed prostheses in the oral cavity of 43 cadavers of Japanese adults aged 55 years or older in forensic autopsies conducted at a university. In this study, Ag-Pd-Au alloys were most frequently detected, and the percentage of Ni alloys was smaller than that reported in patients with dental metal allergies. Furthermore, alloys containing other elements, such as Fe or Hg, were also detected in some cases.