The toxicity of chlorhexidine digluconate against Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was comparatively determined by measuring its bactericidal activity, and its inhibitory effect on microbial dehydrogenases was studied by the resazurin reduction method. Both methods indicated that chlorhexidine within the range 0.75-5.00 mg/l was highly toxic to Streptococcus mutans, probably due to inhibition of dehydrogenase activity, and the extent of toxicity was closely associated with concentration. In an attempt to better understand the relationship between the amphiphilic nature of chlorhexidine and its toxicity against Streptococcus mutans, the effect of solvent polarity on dehydrogenase inhibition was investigated. A decrease in solvent polarity, induced by inclusion of 5% acetone in the reaction mixture, did not enhance the toxicity of chlorhexidine. This implies that the antimicrobial action of chlorhexidine is mainly attributable to its hydrophilicity, and that the nature of the lipophilic groups is only of secondary importance.
A study was made on the effects of cervical headgear on dentofacial structures, especially non-erupted teeth, in the early and late mixed dentition periods. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric evaluation was done on 8 patients in the early mixed dentition period and 10 patients in the late mixed dentition period. The results showed that any reference line passing through Ptm point should not be used to evaluate the efficiency of cervical headgear, and that such headgear is more effective on non-erupted teeth in early mixed dentition.
The study was conducted to determine thiocyanate (SCN-) and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) concentrations in resting (RWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) and stimulated parotid saliva (SPS) of 20 healthy young adults aged 21-29 y. Samples of saliva were collected at 12 : 30, immediately before lunch. Resting saliva was collected by expectoration, and stimulated saliva was collected during the uniform chewing of paraffin wax. Parotid secretion was collected using a modified Carlsson-Crittenden cup (Carlsson et al., Am, J. Physiol., 26, 169-177, 1910). SCN- concentration was determined by the ferric nitrate method (Betts et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 5721-5727, 1953) whilst OSCN- was assayed using 2-mercaptoethanol as a reducing agent (Pruitt et al., Caries Res., 16, 315-323, 1982). In RWS, SWS and SPS, the mean SCN- concentrations (in mM) were 1.48±0.59 (S.D.), 0.90±0.56 (S.D.) and 1.24±0.65 (S.D.) whilst the mean OSCN- concentrations (in μM) were 31.21±13.54 (S.D.), 24.90±12.61 and 30.19±23.35 (S.D.) in the respective salivas. The presence of OSCN- in the secretion collected from the parotid gland supported previous findings by Tenovuo and Pruitt (Tenovuo et al., J. Oral Path, ol. 13, 573-584, 1984), who suggested an endogenous glandular (eukaryotic) source of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), since parotid saliva from healthy glands is devoid of bacteria and leukocytes.
An investigation was designed to determine whether or not the required smoothness has been reached. This is still a controversial subject among clinicians. Ten cylindrical metal samples of equal sizes with various degrees of smoothness were prepared, and their degrees of smoothness were assessed in a blind manner by 14 periodontists, who were asked to group them as smooth or rough using a periodontal probe. Along with the metal samples, the roughness of root surfaces smoothed in clinics was also evaluated using a Profilometer. The average value defined as a smooth surface on a max.-min. scale was 1.86±0.42, and values above 3.57 were considered to be rough. Consequently, decisions taken using the sense of touch about the smoothness of a surface were confirmed to be reliable for clinical use.
A study was conducted to determine the mercury concentration in urine after placement of dental amalgam restorations. The 24-h urine mercury levels in 10 children with a mean age of 8 years were determined before the amalgam restorations had been placed, and after placement. The urinary mercury content was measured by the cold vapor atomic fluorescence method. Mercury levels in the urine samples before placement of the amalgam restorations were below the detection limit, and the values obtained after placement, although detectable, were far below the limits stipulated by the World Health Organization. Under the conditions of this study, it is considered that the mercury levels released from dental amalgams are not high enough to cause any systemic toxic effect.
Inbred mice are a suitable material for genetic studies, and mandibular shape in particular provides a highly quantitative hereditary trait. We investigated which genetic trait in F1, F2 and N2 hybrid mice was most strongly affected by the presence of a large or small mandible in the parents. Ten C57BL/6By strain mice as parents with a small mandible and 10 MRL/n strain mice as parents with a large mandible were employed. Twenty-five (C57BL/6By male × MRL/n female) F1 and 67 F2 hybrids, and 28 (F1 male × C57BL/6By female) N2 backcross hybrids were obtained by laboratory mating. The inter-landmarks of the right mandible were measured by an electronic digitizer. Each mean value of horizontal dimensions in F1 mice resembled that in MRL/1 mice, and that in N2 mice was intermediate between C57BL/6By and MRL/n mice. On the other hand, the mean values of vertical dimensions in F1, F2 and N2 hybrids were intermediate between those of C57BL/6By and MRL/n mice. Hence we suggest that horizontal dimensions are predominantly inherited by mice with a large mandible, and that vertical dimensions show intermediate inheritance between mice with large and small mandibles in the C57BL/6By and MRL/n strains.
Oral tissues, especially tooth surfaces, are covered with a layer of salivary proteins. Oral bacterial cells that adsorb to salivary components accumulated on the tooth surface are, as a rule, covered with the same components, especially proteins. Thus, it is possible that the salivary proteins covering the bacterial cells are related to the adhesion of bacteria to oral tissues. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms of adsorption of salivary proteins to the surface of Streptococcus sanguis, S. mitis and S. salivarius using an adsorption assay with salivary proteins labeled with tritiated formaldehyde. The results showed that salivary proteins adsorbed more to S. salivarius than to S. mitis, and least to S. sanguis. It was evident that hydrophobic bonding was involved in the adsorption of salivary proteins to the bacterial cells tested. The amount of salivary proteins adsorbed to S. mitis and S. salivarius was decreased by the presence of phosphate, that to S. sanguis was increased by the presence of a divalent cation such as Ca2+, and that to all bacteria tested was inhibited in different ways by the presence of sugars. The amount of salivary proteins adsorbed to S. sanguis and S. salivarius was reduced effectively by pretreatment of the cells with trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain. In the case of S. mitis, the amount of adsorbed salivary proteins was decreased by pretreatment of the cells with chymotrypsin only, and was increased by pretreatment with lipase. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms of adsorption of salivary protein to the cell surfaces of oral streptococci.
Albright's syndrome is characterized by the presence of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, endocrinopathies and brown spots on the skin. In the present article the authors describe a case occurring in a 20-year-old female patient, who is currently being followed radiographically after a mandibular bone biopsy.