In our previous study carried out in 1994, we found 49 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) among 51 patients with cleft lip and palate who visited the Department of Orthodontics, Nihon University Dental Hospital at Matsudo. In particular, patients with cross-bite (anterior crossbite) UCLP were predominant, accounting for 21 individuals (41%). In the present study, we reviewed 79 patients with malocclusion including 21 with anterior crossbite UCLP, who represent the largest subpopulation among patients with cleft lip and palate. These 21 patients were compared with other UCLP patients showing normal bite with regard to morphological differences evident in lateral roentgenographic cephalograms, to establish a proper policy of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment of their condition. The anterior cross-bite UCLP group showed differences in the skeletal pattern and the denture to skeletal pattern from the other patient groups except for the mesio-distal relationship. The anterior cross-bite UCLP group had cross-bite of the concave type, while the normal bite UCLP group had malocclusion of the convex type accompanied by maxillary overdevelopment. Thus, it is suggested that normalization of reversed occlusion leads to favorable growth of the upper jaw in UCLP patients with anterior cross-bite.
We report an application of the interval mapping technique using DNA pools of inbred mice. The latest challenge in molecular genetics is to use microsatellite markers for gene mapping and cloning. Little is known about the interval mapping technique for detecting candidate linkages in inbred mice. We investigated the optimum interval length of microsatellite markers for gene mapping using DNA pools on mouse chromosomes, and found that between 25 and 35 centi Morgans (cM) was sufficient. We estimated that at least two to four microsatellite markers required for interval mapping should be present on each chromosome. The number required would depend entirely on the linkage map.
The op/op mouse, which carries an osteopetrotic mutation, suffers from complete failure of tooth eruption. Commonly the teeth are ankylosed to the bone. Previous reports of ankylosis in the op/op mouse have been based on light microscopy. The aim of this study was to clarify the ultrastructural features of the ankylotic area using the oolong tea extract (OTE) staining technique. The ultrastructural features of ankylosis did not parallel the findings of light microscopy. OTE staining clearly stained the collagen fibers of bone and tooth, and the space dividing the tooth and bone was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. In comparison, light microscopy failed to reveal this space and the ankylosis was unclear. The true ankylotic area was smooth and the tooth was tightly ankylosed to the bone.
It is well known that interactions between microbial dental plaque and the host immune system play a major role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to analyze the phenotypic properties of gingival T lymphocytes and subsets in patients with chronic inflammatory adult periodontitis (AP) showing various degrees of inflammation and to relate the results to the immunopathogenesis of AP. Gingival biopsies were obtained from patients aged between 26 and 52 yr who were grouped according to gingival index scores (GI) of 1, 2, and 3. Using immunohistochemical techniques, T cells (CD2+), T-helper cells (CD4+) and T-suppressor cells (CD8+) were identified in three well-defined areas of the biopsy samples. Moreover, peripheral blood was collected from the same patients, and relative counts of B cells (CD 19+), HLA-DR+ cells and IL-2R+ cells as well as CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ cells were determined using three color flow cytometry. While the blood results were found to be within the normal ranges, the relative counts of CD4+ cells showed statistically significant decreases as the GI score increased. Similarly, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio also decreased. Moreover, gingival T lymphocyte and subset counts appeared to be related to the severity of gingival inflammation. Particularly, CD4+ cells showed a significant increase with the GI score. Furthermore, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio beneath the pocket epithelium was apparently correlated with increasing GI score (p<0.05). The cytotoxic effect of CD8+ cells seems to be more prominent at the local level while the suppressor effect is more active systemically. This means that the price of systemic protection appears to be local destruction.
We report an unusual case of pleomorphic adenoma with multifocal stromal bone formation, occurring in the upper lip of a 44-year-old Japanese woman. Islands of fibrous bone were in direct contact with stromal fibrocytes and parenchymal epithelial cells. A review of the literature revealed that stromal bone formation in pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland origin is exceedingly rare.