During their career, students of dentistry acquire techniques which they will employ later on their patients. Since the health of these patients and society itself cannot be left exclusively to the professional activity of these future dentist, an experimental extra-class experience was carried out with pupils from primary and secondary schools. The students gave the pupils presentations on Nutrition, Calcium and Phosphorus and Caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate : a) the influence of society on the teaching process, and training during the first university year, and b) epidemiologic aspects. Our results indicated that 32.2 % of the primary and 15.6 % of the secondary school pupils were unfamiliar with the disciplines presented by the students. According to the evaluations 78.1 % of the primary and 94.0 % of the secondary school pupils achieved or exceeded the minimum requirements considered necessary for correct nutritional and oral health habits. Evaluations of the students demonstrated that the students who had participated in the activity did not have knowledge superior to that of non-parti-cipating students. Therefore this experience can be considered an exercise in utilizing human resources for primary prevention rather than an innovative methodology which improves the teaching-learning process. It also seems recommendable in view of the low cost of the exercise.
Fluoride release from six lightactivated restorative materials, including two resinmodified glass-ionomers, two composites, and two compomers, was evaluated and compared with one conventional acid-based glass-ionomer cement. The amount and rate of release varied among the tested materials. Both resin-modified glass-ionomers and the conventional acid-base glass-ionomer cements released more fluoride then the composites and compomers (p<0.05). Additionally, composite materials released less fluoride than compomer materials (p<0.05). Release of fluoride by the tested materials showed a significant decrease after all the tested time intervals.
From 1970 to 1996, 129 cases of intraoral minor salivary gland tumors were diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Nihon University School of Dentistry. The diagnosis of each case was based on the 1991 WHO classification. Eighty benign and 49 malignant minor salivary gland tumors were found in the approximately 9, 300 oral biopsies submitted during the 27-year period. Pleomorphic adenomas were the most commonly histologic type of the benign tumors identified and 51 % of the malignant tumors were diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The most common primary location of the tumors was the palate. Sixty percent of all tumors occurred in females and the peak age for incidences of all tumors was found in the third, fourth, sixth and seventh decades. These results were compared with those of the studies in different world population groups.
A study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the efficiency of different solvents for dissolving gutta-percha. Halothane, chloroform, xylene, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, turpentine, oil of mela-leuca and eucalyptol were used as solvents for dissolving standardized gutta-percha discs. Halothane, chloroform and xylene were markedly superior solvents of gutta-percha in comparison with the others. There was no significant difference among the three (p>0.05). Eucalyptol, turpentine and oil of melaleuca were relatively less efficient. Acetone and isopropyl alcohol did not dissolve gutta-percha, being similar in this respect to distilled water.
In this study, the focus was on the antibacterial activity of onions. This study researched the activities of onion extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, the main causal bacteria for dental caries, and Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, considered to be the main causal bacteria of adult periodontitis. The results showed that the onion extracts possess an effect on all test bacterial strains (S.mutans JC-2, S. sobrinus OMZ176, P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and P. intermedia ATCC 25611), and the effects were bactericidal against cultured and resting bacterial cells. The activity of the onion extracts was stable even after 48 hours in the culture medium. This result suggests that no decomposition or volatility of onion extracts occurred in the culture medium. The antibacterial activity of onion extracts was not markedly influenced by cysteine (10 mM) treatment. However, activity significantly decreased with alkali treatment. Grated onion left to stand at 37T for 48 hours did not show antibacterial activity. Also, activity of steam treated (100°C, 10 min.) onion was not observed. Using avicel plate by thin layer chromatography with the solvent of n-butanol : acetic acid : water (3 : 3 : 1), the main component of the substance (the substance which develops color with ninhydrin) was observed at an Rf value of about 0.9.
The present study examined whether the shell and the core of the nucleus accumbens play a differential role in the display of YM-14673-induced jaw movements in rats. For that purpose the effects of YM-14673 were compared to those of a SKF 82958 and quinpirole combination, a dopamine D1 and a D2 receptor agonist respectively, that is known to functionally differentiate these two subregions of the nucleus. Consistent with the previous report, bilateral injections of a mixture of SKF 82958 (5 μg) and quinpirole (10 μg) into the shell of the nucleus accumbens produced repetitive jaw movements, whereas similar injections of the mixture into the core did not induce such an effect. In contrast, there was no regional difference in the effects of YM-14673 on the production of repetitive jaw movements. Thus, both bilateral injections of YM-14673 (0.1 or 1.0 μg) into the shell or the core produced similar repetitive jaw movements in a dose-related manner. Moreover, the pattern of oral movements induced by YM-14673 differed from that induced by the mixture of SKF 82958 and quinpirole; frequent tongue protrusions were evident in rats treated with the mixture but were not seen in YM-14673-treated rats. It therefore appears that, unlike the effects of the mixture of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists, the effects of YM-14673 in the shell on the production of rat jaw movements do not differ from the effects of the compound in the core.
The histologic features of normal and hyperplastic epithelia of the extra-glandular excretory ducts of human minor salivary glands were studied, and their pathologic significance evaluated. Normal duct epithelium consisted of two layers : inner columnar cells, and basal cubical or squamous cells. A few goblet cells were present among the inner cells. Hyperplasia of the duct epithelia occurred focally or entirely, and was classified into the following histologic types : (1) simple hyperplasia, and (2) metaplastic hyperplasia, which were divided into (a) mucous cell hyperplasia, (b) oncocytic hyperplasia and (c) squamous cell hyperplasia. Squamous cell hyperplasia was subdivided into (i) acanthotic type and (ii) reserve cell-like type with or without dysplasia. Simple or metaplastic epithelial hyperplasia of the extra-glandular excretory ducts of minor salivary glands may be induced by chronic inflammation or other types of irritation, and proliferating cells of such regenerating tissue sometimes exhibit features reminiscent of a neoplastic process. Furthermore, it is suggested that metaplastic epithelial hyperplasia of the excretory minor salivary gland ducts could be the site of origin of tumor development, i.e., some oral squamous cell carcinomas may arise from primary lesions in the hyperplastic epithelium of the extraglandular excretory minor salivary gland ducts.
Fibronectin (Fn) is a multifunctional adhesive protein found on cell surfaces as well as in plasma. It is also believed to play an important role in bacterial adherence to host tissues. Molecular analyses of Fn have shown that the amino acid triplet arginineglycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence functions as a binding site. We examined the role of the RGD sequence on bacterial adherence to Fn. The pretreatment of Streptococcus mitis with synthetic RGD-containing peptide reduced the number of bound bacteria to the Fn coated plates by 76%. In contrast, a control peptide containing the RGE sequence showed no inhibition. These data indicate that synthetic RGD peptides may be useful for the inhibition of bacterial adherence to Fn on host cell surfaces.
The type and distribution of sulphated proteoglycans (PGs) in the midshaft subperiosteal bone of 15-18-day embryonic chick femurs were studied immunocytochemically and biochemically, using four monoclonal antibodies (MAb 2B6, 3B3, 1B5, and 5D4). These MAb specifically recognize epitopes in chondroitin 4-sulphate (C4-S) and dermatan sulphate (DS); chondroitin 6-sulphate (C6-S) and unsulphated chondroitin (C0-S); C0-S; and keratan sulphate (KS) respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed that staining of C4-S, DS, and KS, but not of C6-S and C0-S, was limited to osteoid, the cell surface of osteocytes, and to the walls of osteocytic lacunae and bone canaliculi in 15-18-day embryonic specimens. However, no significant difference in the distribution and intensity of immunostaining was observed in these specimens. Bone proteins were extracted from fresh 18-day embryonic specimens with a three extraction procedure, 4 M guanidine HC1 (GdnCl, G-1 extract), 0.4 M EDTA (E-extract), followed by GdnCl (G-2 extract), to characterize mineral binding and collagenous matrix associated PGs in E-and G2-extracts respectively. Western blot analysis of E-and G2-extracts demonstrated that chondroitinase ABC-digested PGs with a molecular weight (Mr) approximately of 45, 000 containing GAGs predominantly corresponding to C4-S and/or DS, with no detectable C6-S or CO-S present in the mineral and matrix phase, whereas KSPGs having an Mr of approximately 72, 000 are only present in the mineral phase. These results indicate that embryonic chick bone contains small PGs having C4-S, DS, and KS chains with preferential localization to osteoid, the cell surface of osteocytes, and to the walls of osteocytic lacunae and bone canaliculi.