1. Eastman 910 was used as a plastic bonding agent to determine whether it could be used in clinical orthodontics to bond attachments directly to human enamel. 2. The greater the area contact between attachment and tooth surface, the longer the attachment will hold. 3. The greater the surface adaptation between attachment and tooth surface, the longer the attachment will hold. 4. Moisture eventually breaks the bond seemingly by fluid molecular migration between the faying surfaces. 5. Following the indirect method of fabrication, the attachments will give enough adhesion clinically to accomplish short procedures before the bond is broken ; at which time it may be re-attached if more time is needed.
Nomeus, Psenopsis, Ocycrius, Icticus, Ariomma, P. arg., P. ech., T. cuv. and T. atl. have a esophageal sac. The structure of the sacs and the teeth found in the sacs were examined with conventional anatomical and histological methods. An antiformin method was also used in the dissection of the sacs. The esophageal sac-cavities like diverticula communicated with the esophagus. Two shapes of sacs were found. Ocycrius, Psenopsis, Icticus, Ariomma and Nomeus had kidney-shaped sacs and the sacs of P. arg., P. ech., T. cuv. and T. atl, were elliptical.The sac wall was protected with thick muscular layers, the inner was circular and outer was longitudinal. The sac mucosa contained a supporting bone or cartilage. The inner surface of the sac mucosa of Ocycrius, Psenopsis and Icticus appeared wrinkled. Mucosal surfaces of Ariomma, Nomeus, P. arg., P. ech., T. cuv. and T. atl, had polypoid processes. The supporting cartilage was only recognized in the polypoid processes of T. cuv. and T. atl., and showed some ramifications. No esophageal teeth were found in these two fishes. The other polypoids lined with supporting bones had bony basal pro-cesses in their bases. The supporting bones were attached to the muscles of the sac wall with basal processes. The basal processes showed two types of bases, one Nomeus, P. arg. and P. ech. had five or six radial processes, another Ariomma had a scale-like process. The supporting bones or cartilages were separated from each other. Wrinkled mucosa also was lined with the supporting bone in the connective tissues under the epithelium. Many tiny esophageal teeth were found in both the wrinkled and polypoid type mucosa excepting in the two fishes as mentioned above. Each tooth consisted of the homogeneous dentin and the pulp, but it was not clear whether they were covered with an enamel like substance. The tooth was fixed to the attachment bone by the supporting bone with a disc of connective tissue fibers (contact area). (The authors wish to acknowledge to Dr. G. VAN HUYSEN, Professor of Anatomy, In-diana University School of Dentistry, and to Dr. T. ABE, Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, for their suggestions.)
Most of the bacterial strains isolated from the acute oral diseases are streptococci and staphylococci, and a greater part of these bacteria accounts for hemolytic streptococci. Generally speaking, hemolytic streptococci responsible for the incidence of sup-purative diseases in man are chiefly streptococci pyogenes and they are immunologically representated by Group A of the Lancefield's classification. However, those hemolytic streptococci which are found in the oral suppurative diseases differ greatly in terms of their biological properties from the streptococci pyogenes. As a matter of fact, if we except the fact of hemolysis these hemolytic streptococci are very much similar to those in the viridans group. When examined in terms of their antigen, they do not come under any of Lancefield's A, B, C, D, E and F groups and thus they are rich in the strain specificities. In the previously published researches conducted by the author and his collaborators [1-5], many cases were pointed out which gave rise to a suspicion that these hemolytic streptococci might be variationally derived from viridans streptococci that were invariably found in the infected canal or foci of the root inflammation. This thinking has important bearings on the incidence mechanism of the acute oral suppurative diseases and, as a consequence of a series of experiments, the author has been able to devise a method by means of which streptococci viridans can be variationally changed into hemolytic streptococci as follows.
Schon war es von KOBAYASHI , eine Mitalbeiter der besagte Wirkung, mitgeteilt, dass die Tranquillizer aus den Phenothiazinderivaten die Karies der Rattenmolaren verstarkten. Noch berichtet ASAKURA , derselbe Albeiter, dass Reserpin, Tranquillizer aus dem Rauwolfia Alkaloid, als die Phenothiazinderivaten mehr wirkt. Neulich aufsnue tragtet er die Fahigkeit von Isokarboxazid, Monaminoxydase-Hemmer (Mo-H) solcher Tatsache durch Reserpin zu schwachen, nach . Von Brodie [4, 5] ist die Sedation mit Reserpin aus Freisetzungen der Serotonin indas Gehirn entspringt, aber die Vorbehandlung von Mo-H (Iproniazid) schwacht seineWirkung oder verursacht die Erregung. Wenn freier Serotonin wieviel Stunden stuck fur stuck im Zentrum produziert, verursacht es die Sedation, jodoch solcher pharmakologische Antagonismus aus die ubergrosse Zunahme des Serotonin an Quantitat wahrend. einer kurzen Stunden besteht. Isokarboxazid, der von ASAKURA gebrauchene Mo-H, bezeigt nicht den autonomische kleinliche Effekt mit subkutaner Injektion. Demnach folgerten wir es, dass die Hemmung von Isokarboxazid, der durch Reserpin hervorgerufene Verstarkung der Karies, zu Quantitat des Serotonin Beziehungen hat. Anderseits ist die Zunahme an Quantitat des Blutzucker mit Reserpin far unserer Mechanismus gedacht. Es ist von NIINOH  and WAKAMATSU  unseres Institutes mitgeteilt worden, dass die Tranquillizer, besonders Reserpin, Blutzucker sowie Brenztraubensaure der Ratten vermehrten, jedoch sie Isokarboxazid zu kombinieren gefallen. waren. Diesmal, mit dem Zweck, den Wirkungsmechanismus solcher Tatsache auch zu verfolgen, verabreichten wir den Kaninchen statt die Ratten die gleichen Mitteln, und fugten als gemessenen Gegenstand Cholesterin mit den vorhergehenden Stoffen hinzu.
Human nails of the fingers and toes have been investigated by means of the light and electron microscopes. Most components of the nails are revealed to be composed of fibrous keratin (α-keratin), amorphous keratin (suspected γ-keratin) and tonofibrils. The α-keratin and tonofibrils are seen emdedded in the amorphous keratin (γ-keratin).