THIS STUDY IS CONCERNED WITH THE ESTIMATION OF STREET NETWORK IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS. 1ST TYPE IS IN RESIDENTIAL AREA BY LAND REAJUSTMENT DEVELOPMENT. 2ND TYPE IS BY SPRAWL DEVELOPMENT. 3RD TYPE IS BY THE MIXED DEVELOPMENT. BY COMPERING WITH THE ESTIMATION IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT, STREET NETWORK IN RESIDENTIAL AREA BY SPRAWL DEVELOPMENT IS NOT ESTIMATED SO WRONG.
Recently, some areas in Japan have their plan on pedestrian lanes however, actual conditions of traffic in these are not fully understood. Hence, this paper tried to analyze those conditions by conducting the home-interview survey. The following were the results : a) the various characteristics of the choice structure of using of the system ; and b) the efficient measures on how to maximize effectively the usage of the system.
The aim of this paper is to propose a technique for estimate the pedestrian route choice in Central Business District which have complex space. The' proposed technique is applied to the grouping routes which were classified from the survey and inquired by using the discrete choice analysis model to estimate the route choice behavior in Marunouchi area. As the result, the rate of the route choice have a goodness of fit, because the comparison between this rate by the pedestrian route choice model and the rate of the survey on each link shows approximately equal value.
In this paper we analyzed on commuting flow in Tokyo Metropolitan area, by using Clark's density function. We have found that commuting flow in southwest area increased in the earlier period than that in northeast area, that commuting flow towards Business Core City along the orbital direction is increasing although the absolute values are not so large yet, and that commuting flow towards B.C.C. in the railway sector, showing the strong tendency in suburbanization, increases remarkably along the radial direction.
This paper examines the present pattern of urban fringe housing development in Bangkok with a view to physical characteristics and public transport services. It is found out that the informal public transport service takes an important role in urban fringe areas in terms of: flexible and quick response to rapidly changing demand, participation of residents, developers and operators and generation of job opportunities. Thus the government should promote the informal transport sector through the creation of flexible environment, promotion of participation of residents/developers and operators.
The first part of this paper elucidates the parking problems in densely built-up area. Through several investigations in Sumida-ku, this research describes some different aspects of parking problems. Then a hypothesis is appllied, namely, parking space need to be held in 100m grid to solve the problems. The result shows different cases according to the status quo of the study area.
This paper proposed a “shot gun type parking system” that guides and leads to parking facilities, as the method in a parking plan for improving the infrastructure in commercial areas. The usefulness of the shot gun system was examined by studying a sample area of the central district in Funabashi City. Further, we found that this system is very practical, and by expanding the scope of the information and reservation system, has long term flexibility.
The progress of motorization has reached university students in recent years in Japan. A lot of university campuses, however, have failed to address the need of students for parking facilities. This paper discusses this problem focusing on the following points; (1)the analysis of the supply level of such parking facilities in different universities, (2)the analysis of the demand level for the facilities based on the student behavioral characteristics for car usage and (3)the summary of the several principal concepts in addition to the results from the above analyses.
In spite of rising in Importance of urban transportation planning for non-work days, few analyses of travel behavior on those days have been studied. In this paper, activities and travel behavior, which are performed on non-work days, are analyzed using "activity based approaches", especially considering the relationships with those that are performed in weekdays. Data used in this analysis, were obtained from the activity diary survey, which were conducted by authors in 1987. The results show that travel mode, location and duration of activities on non-work days are related with those of activities in weekdays.
The first purpose of this study is to present and to sort out some issues which should be considered in evaluating a public transportation network in which Bus-System is taking a leading part. The issues are mainly caused by the travel-time uncertainty of Bus service. And the second purpose is to show some criteria for evaluation of Bus-System considering the travel-time uncertainty.
This paper discusses a profitability of a bus management through the financial analysis based on it's balance sheets and income statements. Two different aspects are considered to appraise the financial condition and the operations. First, the company is assumed to be an independent firm without any subsidies from local or central government. Second, the analysis focuses on three typical branch offices, such as downtown branch, suburbs branch, and rural area branch.
The purpose of the present paper is to make clear travel characteristics of physically disabled persons and their requests regarding the utilization of public transportation systems. In this paper, traffic service problems faced by the physically disabledpersons was discussed, and public transportation systems and traffic safety facilities were evaluated from each disabled and non-disabled persons, since those can also be utilized by general public.
Positive steps to provide bus transport for elderly & disabled have been taken in Europe and United States, but Japan is Reluctant to take similar measures. This is a report on the analysis of 1,121 valid answers to a questionnaire given to the disabled of Kanagawa Prefecture. Main analysis dealt with, 1)factors that decided the use or non-use of buses by handicapped and other reasons. 2)limited mobility and means of transport used in the past year. 3)characteristics bus used. 4)satisfaction with vehicles, bus stops bus informations and bus user side subsidy.
To activate urban core areas in metropolitan area, it is necessary to provide comfortable and convenient space for visitors. This research aims to analyse staying behaviour of visitors in urban core areas to find useful information for activation planning. The first half, present condition of visitors' behaviour are analysed by using the index of staying time. The latter half, various factors which affect visitors' behaviour are evaluated by using mathematical models.
The numbers of intra-zonal journey to work trips for each zone in downtown areas have been examined. A technique has been developed to estimate these numbers on the basis on the fact that the average residential lot size per employed resident in each zone in the downtown areas is strongly related to the generative density of intra-zonal journey to work trips. This model was caliburated for a base year(1970). The model was then used to estimate the number of intra-zonal work trips for each zone for the year 1980. The estimated numbers compared favourably with the actual numbers measured in 1980.
In transportation planning, it is important to give full consideration to public opinion. This paper investigates the commuters' choice characteristics of policy measures against controlling congestion in terms of their work trip behavior. A sample of commuters, from the congested Hiroshima metropolitan area, is used here. It is shown that the choice characteristics of policy measures differs according to modal choice behavior, period of commuting time, traffic conditions, and sociodemographic and locational variables. The results suggest that the choice characteristics is classified by these factors.
The paper aims to examine the stability and reliability of stated preference data using two different data sets in Hiroshima. One of which was collected both in 1987 and 1988 with respect to the attitude toward the newly proposed transit system. The deference of SP between two years was devided into the within-wave and between-wave variances. The effects of these variances were tested by using the linear regression and log-linear model analysis. The results indicated that the variances of SP data between two waves were mainly caused by the change of experimental conditions presented at each wave. The comparison of the SP and revealed preference data collected prior and subsequent to the opening of a new rail station also indicated that the SP has a tendency to favour the new proposal. A method of updating SP data with the aid of transfer price data was proved to improve the model accuracy in terms of estimated modal share.
A new station in the existing line has been provided variously because of a lack of the appropriate institution. Petitioned stations were widely known before the privatization of JNR. Now, development of residential districts or improvement of public transports are still required in metropolitan areas. From the view point of urban and transport planning, it is important to establish new process for a new station and to appreciate it and the effect. The purpose of this study is to state a new direction for station provision ment ioned above. Information from a few examples were collected in detail and the process was summarized. After land price models were calibrated, capital gain from a new station and area development were assessed.
Building control is established according to zoning control that expects or presumes to form the proper environment. But the present criteria of regulation are not sufficiently effective in conserving the residential environment at an expected level, mainly because the building control does not work as an effective execution method under the present condition in which land is divided into smaller plots. This study aims at researching the impact and effect of the building control methods on the residential environment in low-rise high-density residential area, and at evaluating the combined systems of building control in terms of their performance of achieving affordable improvement of the present environmental conditions.
The purpose of this study is to throw light upon the process of urbanzation, and the company's assignment of urban facilities adjustment, choosing Takashima town, Nagasaki pref from among many company towns. Takashima mining station of Mitsubishi coal mining industry & Co.,1td. holds many private lands in the town. So some public facilities were built at the private land, and company built most of the roads in the town. And the company brought much water by useing his water boats in the waterservice. In the welfare facilities, the hospital performed the most important assignment.
In Japan , some methods to adjust the environment of sections have been introduced for more than twenty years . These methods are considered necessary to continually control from the scale of city to that of each lots. In this article (by the survey in Kawasaki city) first I aim to investigate the effect and the problems of applicating the methods in view of a city scale, mainly through the comparision with the state of the land use and the time of urbanization. Then I try to grasp the effect in view of a district scale through the comparisin of the ratio of building density of each lots between some of those where the methods were applyed and the other not.
TOYOGAWA IRRIGATION PROJECT IS ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS PROJECTS IN JAPAN. AND THE WATER SUPPLY BY IT CHANGES THE IRREGATED AREA TO THE TOP OF HIGH AGRICULTURAL AREA IN JAPAN. THE POUROSE OF THIS PAPER IS TO DEFINE THE CHANGES OF WATER USE AND LAND USE IN TOYOGAWA IRRIGATION AREA AND TO SUGEST THE FRAME OF WATER USE PLANNING RELATED WITH LAND USE ON THE CASE STUDY OF TOYOGAWA IRRIGATION AREA.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate a district environmental revitalization project, southern & northern part of SYONAI district, TOYONAKA-City, which has successfully been led by citizen's participation. The analysis of this district, the following conclusions have been drawned. First, the study shows that, the attained level of the project such as Green Road Network, Vehicle Road Network, Park & Plaza, Public Facilities, Housing Improvement & Supplies have been reached more or less as planned. Second, the project also, brought about substantial changes of resident's attitude toward area which is living or to be continued, and the enhancement of coherence and regional belongings.
The aim of this study is, based on our actual case studies, to examine housing conditions of Korean people living in the inner area of Osaka and the movement of their community. They concentrate in a certain area, having moved into the present houses from the houses located in the same area, in order to maintain their lives through their mutual aid. Housing conditions of them are, however, distinctly worse as compared to those of Japanese and it is necessary to develop new housing programs for Korean people and their community.
To find out some requisites for success of regional development, we analyzed three famous examples of regional development in Japan using knowledge acquisition support system CONSIST (CONstruction Support system of Information STructure). As results , we found out four fundamental requisites ; three purposes , six ways of thinking , and 15 conditions . We recognized five growth stages and stagnation stage in the proccess of regional development.
This paper aims to examine the trends in the postwar interregional migration in Japan. Two methods, namely the Figure of Influence Relationships and the Multi-Dimensional Scaling Technique are applied using interregional migration data for 1960-1985. Main findings show while the number of interregional migrants had been reduced markedly since the First Oil Crisis in 1973, the interregional migration patterns were stable in the period 1960-1985.
This paper is concerned with the problem of center in rural area, in the case of I ide-machi. The town was borned by combining four villages during 1954～1958. The center of the town has never grown yet. The people living in the town depend on neighbor cities, Nagai-shi, Yonezawa-shi, from the point of view of the behavior of going out and going shopping. The problem servicing of the center area are completing public survice space and market environment under questionnnarire to the people. The center of image space of people living in the center area is located in the residential area.
This study examines regional characteristics about the mountain vil of prefecture's boundary area ; standing on the examination for the social state, the process of road improvement and activities area on one of the boundary areas of Aichi and Nagano pref. As a result, it is shown that in comparison with rural areas adjacent to urban areas these areas are serious in economical state, road improvement is lagging, and that inhabitants' major activities are mainly practiced on neighboring areas than on cities.
The study aims at analyzing historical changing process on spatial structure and site conditions of campuses in Japan (1918-) and Korea(1945-). From the actual state in social status of the university, they can be hypothetically devided into four (Japan) and three (Korea) stages. Then, through the analysis on the number of campuses and their distribution both in each country and metropolitan area, the hypothesis are verified with partial revision. The modern university has developed and changed quite rapidly in common with both countries. In early stage, universities were concentrated in capital city. Then they spread in all area of the country and after that, multiple campus university are increased in metropolitan area.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the processes of physical growth in campuses of Japanese national universities and colleges, and to discuss the conditions to be able to retain possibilities for their future growth, so that they may keep more stable spatial positions within the cities as essential ellements of urban complex.
In Japan, it has also become important to guide for the inner-city rebuilding as for the outer-city new development. But the planning system, as district-planning introduced in 1980, can not deal with the random and various change at built-up area. In this condition, this study evaluate some non-statutory district planning systems, and propose the orientation for synthesizing statutory but hard system and non-statutory but flexible system in order to improve residential environment at built-up area.
This analysis shows how to develop the street network is closely connected with scale and shape of parcels. In the urban sprawled areas, this articles point out that analysis on parcels, in detail, for development of new street network is necessary.
The aim of this study is to analyze the planning agreements which has been concluded by the shopmen under the Improvement Scheme of the shopping streets and to make clear the character of these agreements. Some tasks which the agreements are having are pointed out from the view point of formation.
We have tried to examine a possibility of "Accumulating Patterns of Housing" (APH), as an analyzing method to light on the problems of housing improvement on the every limited part of the small hosing markets of Kyoto City. APH are defined by combining sizes, making ages and types of every housing stock. As the result, we have found the following; (1)Most of community areas of Kyoto City are classified into the simple pattern areas and the mosaic pattern areas. (2)It is possible to understand a concrete character of the community without the field survey in the place.
This paper describes how the values of living together at the high-densely built-up areas can be created to meet the needs of the mutually aided life among the local residents and to add the values continuously in the living process. This article examines the factors of the residential environment to the values of living together, which have been shown to vary both socially and spatially through our case study at K.area in Kitakyusyu. This concludes with a discussion of the importance of the multiply-connected relations, the organic mechanism and participanting process for promoting the values of living together.
This research aims to search for the methods to reconstruct children's play environments by studying and comparing the play environments which children in foreign countries have. The actual condition was surveyed by the interviews with about 50 children in three public elementary schools in each city, and by the observation of the actual playing scene. This is a report of children in East Asia - Seoul, Taipei, and Nagoya.
This study clarifies the extent of children's living space and the development of cognizance. As the children grow up, though the number of play lots is almost same, utilization of play lots increases. In the fourth and sixth grade, the children living near the school tend to cognize regions in the euclidean space, while the children living far from the school tend to cognize regions in the topolpgical space. Thus it is important to locate a school within a certain distance from children's home, from a point of view of the development of cognizance.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the problems of the condominiums development in resort areas. These condominiums are constructing all over the country. A number of the newly constructed condominiums becomes over ten thousands every year. Firstly, the location of the condominiums is analyzed. Secondly, the stock and flow of the condominiums are assessed. Thirdly the problems which are raised by the excessive development are in focussed.
This paper aims to clarify the resort image focused in user's minds in Metropolitan Tokyo. Based on the questionnaire survey to office-workers and university students in 1989, statislical analysis and quantitive theory analysis are conducted. Findings are as follows; 1)Image to resot areas, by sensory scales,is relatively monotonous, while image to sight-seeing areas is varied. 2)Three types of the ideal image of resort areas focused in user's mind are extracted. 3)Users are classified into three type from their charactor's and attitude's point of view. Correspondence can be seen between the ideal image types of resort areas and types of users.
The planting agreement based on the preservation law of urban green contributes mainly to greening of housing area. The most important item influencing effect of planting among items of planting agreement is the structure of hedge or wall. The correlation between effect of planting on hedge or wall of roadside in housing site and application of the item was made clear through the research on the actual condition. The conditions in applicating the item on the structure of hedge or wall was made clear through the questionnaire to the community carrying out planting agreement.
The authors make some improvements on observed environmental indicators system based on residents' evaluation which was developed for Kawasaki so that they can estimate time variation of environmental amenity evaluated by present residents, The improved indicators system shows that variation from 1980 to 85 of the indices of first class residential area with most strict land use regulation differs from those of the other classes with less strict regulation. They conclude that these differences stem from direct land use control as well as upper bound restriction of floor space to site area ratio.
In this paper we apply fractal geometry and texure analysis to the analysis of street forms. And we prove the effectiveness of these methods for quantifying characters of street forms through the case studies of medieval German and Islamic cities. With quantifying characters of street forms through these methods it is expected to discover some forms which have never been revealed to the human eyes as well as the necessary order of making forms in cities.
The object of this study in charnel houses that have been constructed since 1912 in the Metropolitan area. We compared a charnel house with a religious institution and a graveyard. We got following results. A now charnel house is very inexpensive. It isn't exchange able for a graveyard. Construct a charnel house after very careful consideration.
We have already developed the data input system for building forms. However, it allows inputting of data of wall and roof forms in a building, so that the picture derived from these data is fit for simulate the setting of buildings. In this paper, in order to sophisticate this system, we will introduce the "opening editor" function which helps input the form of windows, doors, etc., and the "congelation paint" function which can help inputting even if the map is not so clear. Using the both functions like the opening editor and the congelation paint, we can get more detailed picture and the more efficient input work.
To clarify physical characteristics of landscape, we analyzed the color of landscape images using a method of computer image processing. We took 94 pictures of landscape. These pictures were grouped into 15 categories. In this study, the data of landscape images were formed by 438 colors. By the total area of colors of each category, the hue, the value and the chroma of landscape were analyzed. And we analyzed how regions of images which are occupied each color are distributed.
In order to support street plannig with considering streetscape, streetscape simulation system is developed by using the personal computer system. This simulation system is designed to reflect planning regulations such as regulation on building form, and can simulate a certain kind of streetscape of the planning street. It is applied to the land readjustment area in Kanazawa and its operational ability for planning purposes is studied through analysis of surveyed data carried out to planning staffs of local authorities and consultants.
This study aims to determine the color rendition of object color under daylght (3100K-35000K) and to clarify the adaptability of Drum Scanner for measuring Apparent Colors. The conclusions of this study are :1) the Apparent Color variation have four patterns, and these are classified according to three attributes, HUE, VALUE and CHROMA , of object colors; and 2) Drum Scanner is useful for colorimetry, because the size of error occuring from Drum-Scanner is smaller than the width of the Apparent color variation under daylight.
The visual simulations that we value and forecast the townscape have been developed as three-dimensional and sequential methods. modelscope-system is also one of them. The purpose of this study is to make clear some characteristics of townscape valuation by using modelscope-system pictures, and the possibility of the utilization of the system. For this purpose, we took notice of some difference by some valuations between practice and modelscope-system pictures, and conducted four different experiments by "SD-method" and analyzed each factors. As the result, It became clear that a valuation "value of space" is effective in modelscope-system pictures.
The objective of this study is to identify what images do people have for tourist resorts, what factors are effective for formation of the images and what image has much to do with people's choise of a tourist resort. In order to get data, I delivered each five hundred questionairs for tourists to three famous marine resorts, they are Hawaii, Guam and Okinawa. I have identified chracteristics of each resort based on people's image and the important image items of each resort for attraction of tourist. Based on these information, I tried to describe people's choice of resorts with disaggregate behavioral model.