The purpose of this paper is to clarify the actual condition of the seasonal migration, as the culture of Hegura Island by the following method. First, we clarify a change in the seasonal migration from literatures, and extract a point of view to comprehend the current seasonal migration. Next, we investigate each family's seasonal migration and the people's attitude toward the living environment in Hegura Island. Finally, we found the fact that the current tendency of seasonal migration, such as time in staying at Hegura island, is influenced by two factors; one is each stage of people's life and the other is people's attitude toward the island.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the result and the problem of a new participatory project of Kyoto City Office for repairing small playgrounds, discuss what viewpoint for evaluation is applicable and available, and show contents of the simple manual based on the viewpoint for the next term. Two important conclusions can be drawn from our practices of three sites including design workshops; (1) a project term should set clear goals considering conditions such as management and maintenance, (2) a goal-oriented hypothetical evaluation model would be applicable to the manual for the next term.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify a method of analyze development of workshop for citizen's participation and the changes of participator's consciousness; how to form critical mind and role mind for community planning. The conclusions is 1) The way of workshop gets participators to have much more critical mind and various role mind. It is important to make the better use of such person in the whole chain of community planning program. 2) It is necessary to set up new places which go well with the expansion of the participator's critical mind and to make the places where they have to play some role.
The purpose of this study is to clarify effects of supplying Community Houses in built-up area densely crowded with wooden building for Residential Environmental Improvement on a neighborhood. It is necessary to keep a neighborhood friendly and helpful for the old when the residential environment is improved. The conclusions are as following. After the residents came to live in Community Houses, the neighborhood is limitative within the Community Houses. And it is desirable to keep the neighborhood friendly and helpful to the old that the residents move with their neighbors, and small Community Houses are constructed.
The purpose of this paper has been to look at examples of "Hyogo Rivial Collective Housing", to find a state of community living on collective housing. And the change of the situation at housing in about one and a half years since the residents started living there was investigated. In the conclusion, in supplying collective housing to people living in public housing, it is necessary to explain to them in detail how to live there comfortably and to let the prospective residents live there on trial so that they can understand fully what the life in collective housing is like.
This study makes the actual management and conditions of local communication in the Group homes of mental disturbed persons clear. I surveyed these 57 Group homes in Tokyo by hearings and analyzed the surround area of these Group homes with maps. In conclusion, first, we can see they have various operating organizations and principals such as the law for Group homes hopes. And Group homes are the house where mental disturbed persons can live in the local community. Secondly, more than half of all Group homes did the local communication in their own local areas. And the surround area of group homes or the principals of their operating organizations influences the local communications.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify historical change of Zenpukuji Scenic Beauty Association. The results of this study are as follows; Before the war, this association developed projects systematically. It preserver the significant area for scenic beauty, ensured based for management and created new scenic beauty in cooperation with Tokyo Prefecture. It was economically independent on the profit of the boat service. After the war, its activity changed from creation of physical scenic beauty to uniting the neighborhood through events at the park. After sweeping revision of the articles, its activity is going to enter a new phase.
The purpose of this article is to make clear what kind of vision they have for community in the U.S.A. through analyzing what is the concept of the New Urbanism. The New Urbanism has the design concept and original design codes depend on the region. The concept has visions at three levels at architecture, neighborhood and city. We make sure how the New Urbanism and Transit Village respond to community problems in the U. S. A through urban design.
A lot of residential areas in Tokyo are threatened by the trough car traffic. This paper aims to analyze the quasi-arterial road carrying the through traffic in those areas. We surveyed the density of both arterial roads and quasi-arterial roads indicated on the maps showing byroads in Tokyo 23-ku. And as the case study, we investigated Suginami area where they have a lot of quasi-arterial roads in the residential community, including the traffic accident analysis. As the result, we showed the present conditions, problems and future direction to improve such kinds of roads.
The purpose of this article are to trace up the history of urban design in Florence of Renaissance era, to see how this urban design was introduced to Paris, and to depict the beginning of urban design in Paris. An axis, which connected SS. Annunziata-Santa Maria del Fore-Palazzo Vecchio-Palazzo Uffici, was also established there. Marie de Medicis, a grand daughter of Casimo 1, made the Palais du Luxembourg and the Cours de la Reine introducing those Italian designs to Paris. Colbert, Le-Notre and the Commisiion des Artistes were the successors of her design. They made the axis and urban designs of Avenue des Champs-Eysees and Avenue de Observatoire, making use of Marie's heritages.
This study is to clarify the basis of the urban planning described in the Spanish colonial law, "Discovery, Colonization and Conquest" promulgated in 1573 by the King, Felipe II, and also to compare it with the practical urban planning before the law's appearance. This law is evidently an early one in the Spanish modern urban history and the previous urban constructions apparently had a great influence on the lawmaking. As the type of the Spanish square "Plaza Mayor" corresponds to the square prescribed here by law, it is full of suggestiveness that this square type has strong relation to the colonial policy also.
This paper considers a unification process of the medina and the new city in the old capital of Fes, Morocco. The point about this process is that the separatism suggested by French colonial urbanism has fallen through because of the great influence of the Medina in the whole city. The fact that an urban renewal is carried out in the medina suggests that the traditional structure of narrow lanes which symbolize Fes is changing in order to assure modern access. In concluding, I should note that it is necessary to apply the rule of Islamic cities to the urban planning.
This paper aims to review a recent planning system in England from a viewpoint of the co-ordination between transport and land-use planning and to discuss its implication for the planning system. Since a new transport white paper was published in 1998, the central government has pursued an integration of transport and land use policy by revisions of PPG12 and PPG13, and by an introduction of local transport plan and regional transport strategy. The England's case shows that a systematic plan-led structure, appropriate control measures, an organization of planning procedure etc. are important for realizing the co-ordination of transport and land-use planning.
The Purpose of this historical study is to make clear the attributes and the historical place of the "Osaka Comprehensive Plan" in 1928 by investigating the circumstances of plan making, purpose, contents and methods for realization of the Plan, and to clarify the denotation of the word "Comprehensive". This Plan proposed urban infrastructure facilities that were not formerly a part of the urban planning decision in Osaka in those days. Although, the Comprehensive Plan did not include any of the technological methods found in the accepted urban plan, it maintained urban plan standards in connection with its own attributes. The 1928 Plan may be regarded as the early comprehensive plan in Japan.
In the 17th century of Japan, the inter-city freight transport system using coastal ship was already developed for supplying commodities to the capital city of Edo (Old Tokyo). This study tries to clarify the necessity and procedure for coastal ship route development from the viewpoint of the logistics system. It also tires to confirm that coastal ship route development was introduced not only for creating traffic route but also for establishing the trading system. Thus, inter-city transport was popularized in Japan after the development of the coastal ship route. As a result of this development, the commercial trade area expanded and the institution of feudal (Busi-dominated) society started to change.
This paper aims to clarify location structure of commercial space in the 19th century Edo. The distribution of a store of those days, and the situation of prosperity was analyzed Edo shopping guidance book and the Pictorial map of the Edo famous sights. Finding are as follows. 1) The distribution form of every type of industry can be classified into four types. Moreover, the central commercial district was constituted by store which sold various goods, and the store carried out the diversified management with the big capital. 2) The contents of composition of the goods of each town can be classified into five types. 3) By connecting the prosperity with other element, the commerce integration district is consistent.
The residential areas in Tokyo inner area have altered one after another. But some of them still have historical atmosphere. Especially, Gokenin resident's sites which are considered as one of the roots of single family housing area in Japan, still remain the same in some aspects inherit from Edo-era. This study aims to make clear the inheritance on the structure of space and land ownership in Gokenin resident's sites of Tokyo. Consequently, there are very few areas where historical context can be found and therefore visions of urban housing in such areas should respect the historical inheritance and contexts.
In 1906, the shiku-kaisei planning to Kanazawa that was the first city planning in modern times was made. The purpose of this planning was to widen the main streets and to construct streetcar railroads. The city construction of Kanazawa in Taisyo era was almost spent to realize the planning, and finished in 1923. which were one circular road around Kanazawa castle and four raditional roads from this circular road. The second were the new main streets for the modern core facilities from Meiji era which were two connecting roads to the station and the division barracks. Although the width of the new widened streets were only 14m, these streets have been the main streets of Kanazawa.
It had been determined recently to build National Memorial Hall in Hiroshima for the Atomic Bomb Deceased in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, and we could excavate the stratum of Peace Park before foundation works. This paper aims to examine the urban structure of Peace Memorial Park from view-point of stratum excavated. The main results are as follows: 1) It is very useful for excavating the stratum to examine where and what the present some point is in the past by overlapping selected who-period map within the past several period maps. 2) By excavating the stratum which had been seldom churned, we caught the overlap structure which showed atomic-bombed stratum, pre-war stratum and living stratum in Edo Era. Then, those stratum presents the clear urban structure.
This study investigations the history of master plans of Iwaki city, which was born in 1966 as a result of a unification of 14 municipalities. Through the analysis of former master plans, new city construction plan and comprehensive plans from the first till fourth, it si evident that Takayama report, academic advisory report in 1968, played significant role for the development of Iwaki city. This Takayama report made an important influence for the formation of consensus on urban development policy and the contents of advice are realized for development of urban core. It implicates the necessity of academic advisory function to get wide consensus before nification of municipalities.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the administrative planning of the local government, having clarified the products and tasks which are resulted from partnership work between a local government, local residents, and rural planning professionals. We examined three planning processes through a case study of KURIYAMA-mura, Tochigi prefecture. First partnership is the process of an elaboration of educational vision and reconstruction of a primary school. The second is making out a master plan of this village. The third is planning of the districts which are divided into nine parts.
The purpose of this study is to establish the index, in the aspects of amenity and health of high density residential environments, that is "Effective Open Space Rate". "Noninflammable Area Rate" has been authorized and used to evaluate the district environment in the field of fire safety. The index is proofed to be effective and useful to evaluate the present conditions and project assessment through the studies of (1) reviews of Previous Related Studies, (2) District Model, (3) Case Studies, (4) Differences of Land Use Characters, (5) Resident Evaluations.
In this paper, decentralization strategies based on national plans and reflecting locational trend of manufacturing companies in Thailand will be demonstrated in detail. Regardless of the aim to disperse manufacturing locations toward rural regions held by national plans, most of actual development projects and manufacturing locations occurred in or near Bangkok Metropolitan Region. The locations in suburbs are strongly affected by major infrastructure like trunk roads, and Extended Metropolitan region (EMR) is going to be formulated, centralized by CBD of Bangkok.
Land use planning in model city planning system is characterized as the master plan approach and the command and control measures based on monitoring -enforcement system. In a rapidly growing megacity such as Bangkok, however, the preparation and implementation of this modern planning system are strictly limited by various factors such as lack of adequate information, problems in institutional dimensions, and the limitation lying in modern planning system itself. In this paper through analyzing the formulation process of the revised Bangkok Metropolitan General Plan by local authority the above-mentioned problems are identified and the limitation of adapting modern land use planning system is suggested.
At first, this study clarifies the state of continuation from the higher educational facilities, established under the old system of education until the end of the Pacific War (1945), to today's university campuses. The field is the Metropolitan area of Tokyo. Today, about one hundred universities and colleges run nearly two hundreds campuses in the total, and almost forty per-cent of those are continue before the War. Thorough the investigation of formative years of these campuses, and analysis of locations in the area, several types of campus formation, and stages of distributions are found out. In the twenties and thirties, overlapping with the land readjustment projects and residential development characterize the physical state of campuses.
In developed countries, traditional city centers are prone to stagnate or to decline, influenced by large-scale retail stores in the suburbs. On the other hand, there are some successful examples of revitalizing city centers, especially in Germany. In Dortmund, a Ufo-shaped large-scale retail project was planned on the main station, and revitalizing the city center was discussed at the same time. So, it is important to analyze these movements in comparison with Japan. Main differences are as follows. 1) Retail stores are treated as a city planning and discussed openly. In decision making process, expected retail sales estimated by commercial consultants plays an important role. 2) Not only the quantity of retail areas, but also their quality is examined. It is also significant, that the number of parking lots is limited.
The ISTEA of 1991, which was passed and replaced as the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century in 1998, became the largest and most flexible sources of federal financing for historic preservation-related activities. The historic preservation activity is categorized as one of the "Transportation Enhancement Activities", authorized as part of the Surface Transportation Program by the ISTEA. The purpose of this article is to inquire in the meaning of historic preservation in the policy of the transportation through the ISETEA. It is shown that historic preservation contributes the community revitalization, which the transportation policy also aims for in the ISTEA.
The existence of gap between consumers and store managers in evaluation of shopping complexes is considered to deteriorate the management of them. This study aims to analyze two kinds of gaps existing between consumers and store managers in evaluation of shopping complexes. One of them is the gap in evaluation values of factors constructing the attractiveness of stores. Another is the gap in importance of factors in evaluation. In the analysis, two kinds of gaps are clearly explained based on data which are gathered in Tadotsu Area of Kagawa Prefecture from both consumers and store managers.
The large-scale redevelopment project has been planned in the Sapporo City. However, the evaluation from viewpoint of the inhabitant for such plan has not sufficiently been done. It is necessary that we evaluate the project from viewpoint of the user in order to activate the central urban district, and analyze usefulness then, this study analyzes the evaluation of the inhabitant for the plan using AHP. In addition, the effect of redevelopment project is analyzed according to new potential model using the result.
Today, historic climates have been preserved by the Ancient Capitals Preservation Law in eight cities including Kyoto. However, the validity to the government expenditures or the land use regulations by this law has not been shown clearly. So, based on the consciousness of the Kyoto citizen, we measured the economic value of this preservation in monetary term, using CVM and Conjoint Analysis. Then we economically evaluated this law, and considered validity of this law and land use regulations by this law. As a result, this economic value is about 2.3 billion-yen per year and the Kyoto citizen dose not want strict regulations for land use.
In Fukui city, trial Community Bus Scheme was carried out in the private group initiative throughout for 2 months in 1999. This paper aims to report the execution process from the trial stage of Community Bus Scheme to its regular introduction and the results of the evaluation of the trial scheme through the analysis of users' and wayside inhabitants' behaviors and consciousness. And then the possibility of the Community Bus as a new bus service and the significance of the trial scheme are examined.
The purpose of this study is to grasp results of launching "Kanazawa Flat Bus" as the most up^-to-date low-floor community bus. The study clarifies primary obstructive factors of residents' transportation in their daily life and effects of launching "Community Bus". The fundamental analysis is based on the result of a questionnaire survey for the bus passengers. The survey shows that main passengers are elderly people and ladies. Moreover, the study deals with frequency of the bus use, and economic effect on the central shopping district. We conclude, as a result, launching "Community Bus" considerably contributes the convenience of many people and revitalization of town center.
The aim of this study is grasp of situation and national trend of public facilities equipment in city core. Firstly it analyzes the present location and transition of public facilities in order to grasp the situation about public facilities equipment. Secondly it considers course of public facilities equipment thorough analyses of components and way of realization of public facilities in plan of city core vitalization. Finally it studies in three cities as a case study. As results of these analyses, this study found out the correlation between city core vitalization and public facilities equipment.
This study investigates the development mechanism in Urbanization Control Area (UCA) of Tsukuba City to find the problems of the present development permission system. Problems in UCA are: 1) accumulation of individual development causes land use problem and needs for infrastructure, 2) judgment standard for regulation is ambiguous, 3) regulation for use and shape is too lose. For the improvement of planning system is: 1) selection of the development area in UCA on the base of the master plan for UCA, 2) introduction of district planning system based on the consensus of land owners, 3) appropriate regulation of use and shape in accordance with landscape of UCA.
This study aims on examining the relation between the suburbanization of enterprises in local sity and the decline of central district for Nagaoka City as case study. Between 1986 and 1996, the number of employees at 3 central districts has decreased 6% while the total number of employees in whole city has increased 15% and the share of 3 districts for total of city has fallen from 26% to 21%. Main industrial group of decreasing is wholesale and retail trade, and eating and drinking places which have over 10 person employees and such enterprises move to newly developed area. We suggest that such movement leads the decentralization of all working area and effects also those of population.
This paper deals with the policies and strategies of master plans in the Urbanization Control Areas and out of City Planning Areas in the Kanto region, and clarifies how local authorities can describe and materialize their policies. Our analysis firstly reviews the Urbanization Control Areas and out of City Planning Areas, followed by the examination of their policies. We arrive at the conclusion that the co-worked mechanism between planning and agricultural departments within each local authority is essential for plan making procedure and development control.
This paper analyzes planning process of municipality master plans based on nationwide surveys carried out to prefectures and municipalities using questionnaires, and references for planning guidance issued by prefecture governments. As result of study, following points are founded. There are some inconsistencies between prefecture intentions and municipalities' needs the planning committees are categorized five types referring its formation of members' representative bodies. The planning organization are also categorized eight types, which have supportive sub-committees or ad-hoc committees for public participation.
Various Approach for making city Master Plan have been tried in Japan. This study shows 16 unique citizen's activities which brought by citizens or municipality after making City Master Plan. These activities which triggered on the occasion of partnership between municipality and citizen performed in making City Master Plan, are brought to aim at realization of the future vision of City. The characteristics of the activities can be divided by 4 types as follows; (A-1) lead by municipalities, active in whole district (A-) lead by municipalities, active in particular area, (B-1) lead by citizens, active in whole district, (B-2) lead by citizens, active in particular area. These new activities can be expressed as unexpected effect of City Master Plan and expected coming new era of "Machizukuri" (Community or Town Buildhing).
This paper purpose that the practical use of urban master plan for advancing city planning by partnership with the citizen is shown by examining the challenge in Gujo District Hachiman town. in the town, through it was difficult to immediately practice city planning by partnership with the citizen, the local administration wanted to make the master plan which comprehensively showed the future of town as early as possible. Then, the urban master plan should be utilized as a clue for practicing city planning by partnership with the citizen. And the groping for partnership with the citizen begins by community organization.
This paper reports the process of making Master Plan in Yokohama City. It's pointed out that, in a large city like Yokohama, it's difficult to make City Master Plan in participation with many residents. Yokohama is a city specially designated by a government ordinance (Local Government Act) and accorded the privilege of having "ward office". So, in Yokohama City, ward office tries to play a leading role in making District Master Plan, even though it doesn' t have city planning section. This paper is a study of the process of making District Master Plan (Kohoku Ward Master Plan) in Yokohama, and it concludes that by cooperating with city planning section in municipal office, ward office can make District Master Plan in participation with many residents.
The objective of this paper are to identify the problem of a sidewalk in winter for the snowy region. the survey was carried out in urban areas Nagaoka. The environment of a sidewalk in winter area leaved something to be desired. They are the route of snowremoval from a sidewalk, the width of snowremoval on a sidewalk and safety on a sidewalk, the width of snowremoval on a sidewalk and safety on a sidewalk after snowremoval. It's important to snouwremoval from sidewalk for the environment of walking in winter.
The tendency of the waste disposal in Tokyo is shifted from individual local authority to co-operatives between local authorities. The purpose of this study is to examine the methodology of area-based plans for the waste disposal between multiple local authorities in inner Tokyo. The methodology of this study is Liner Programing Method based on the neighborhood area. A comparative examination of three co-operative patterns shows that in the light of transportation capacity the most effective area-setting way to the combustible waste disposal in inner Tokyo is by local authority groups, by not individuals.
This study examines the effectiveness of "Urban Central Residential Urban Form" for urban central residence and suburban residence using the indices of "Transport Energy Use", "Transport Cost", and "Urban Development and Maintenance Cost". This paper firstly indicates that transport energy use and transport cost for urban central residence are smaller, and then demonstrates that the urban development and maintenance cost for urban central residence and the percentage of urban central residents are not positively proportional. The paper concludes that the transform from suburban to urban central residence is much effective, and a reasonable percentage of residents at urban center exists.
This paper aims to investigated twenty-eight cases of treatment and redevelopment of contaminated land such as brownfield site from the view of care for the public consultation, and decision-making meetings are practiced by local governments, and care for the public is clearly seen as one of the core element in the approach of treating and redeveloping contaminated land. The presence of residential groups and environmental groups is found to be effective to promote public participation. Especially, residential groups have promoted for the participation to the meeting, which is the most direct and active form of public participation. Citizen participation is found to be promoted by environmental groups and Groundwork Trust.
In the city of Japan which promoted nuclear-power-plant location, the urban public facilities progressed in response to application of the three legal systems of power supply. This thesis is study of three laws accompanied by the location of a power plant covered for Niigata and Fukui Prefecture. This research compared with of the indices of financial condition in Niigata and Fukui Prefecture. In this research, we could academic organic effect between nuclear-power-plant location and the three legal system of power supply.
This report describes the activities for regeneration of cities in U.K., mainly by local people and the partnership of the local authority and local people. I researched many cases about these initiative actions, SRB (Single Regeneration Budget) project, Credit Union, LETS (Local Exchange Trading System) which means the local economy system without sterling, Community Business. Recently these community actions increase quickly in U.K. these community actions were used as the method to develop the community capacity inner city, which has a lot of problem of unemployment and lack of communication in the local area. Successfully to regenerate cities, we must develop the same scheme to reconstruct the social condition and the local economy condition.
Manu family types are developing in Tokyo metropolitan area. This study focuses on a family type of DIWKS (double income with kids) and analyzes its macro trend. This study then investigates the influence of nursery supply to the birth and working of family. The finding is; there exists in influence of both birth and working in municipalities with under supply of nursery.
Listening investigation using the sign map method was conducted to clarify the relationship between territory of consciousness for common and the spatial structure in town houses based on consciously defined territory and actual territory for community activities. Results showed that the territory of consciousness for common exists along the street area in front of houses in the street type structure and around a common square in front of houses in square structure. In the case of wide path structure with more available apace, this territory exists along the path in front of houses and spreads throughout the path extension all the town houses.
Private maintenance activity in low rise housing was analyzed using questionnaires to clarify the influence of spatial structure differences on the consciousness of residents. From the analysis, we found that residents lived collectively and hand a common view about the need to maintain individual house and common space for quality environment. The view about the need to wide path structure with more available space was strong concerning the change of individual boundary space. In addition, individual maintenance activities and the consciousness of participating in neighborhood activities in the common space was high among residents living in the wide path structures.
As Capital Construction Law, including the green belt plan proposal. was enacted in 1956, the cities' governments and the land owners in the suburb zone, which was supposed to be designated as green belt, opposed the plan because of strict limitations on city development. In this paper the authors investigate how changed from the point of view of the TMG. As a result, the facts about these cities' governments urbanization; and the plans of the land owners to develop their land for residential use because clear. This resulted in a delay of the planned urban development in the suburb zone, compared to the surrounding zone, including the satellite cities.