This paper is concerned with the water system and water utilization around the Kanazawa castle in Edo era (1603-1867). The water system consists of rivers, moats, and channels. The castle lies between the Asano-river and the Sai-river, where the former is on the north side, whereas the latter on the south side. The castle is surrounded in double by moats, viz., Sogamae-bori, from the east and west sides.There are four smaller moats inside Sogamae-bori, and eight channels outside it. In addition to the military purpose, it is realized that the water in Kanazawa has been used for drink, fire fighting, snow melting and clearing, irrigation, garbage dump, sewerage, brewage, paper making, enjoyment and dyeing. It is concluded that the wide variety water usages in Kanazawa have been made possible by the high quality water in large amount and intelligent persons who could develope new ways of the water usage skillfully. It is suggested that the possible interaction of these persons and the clean water running in the system has enhanced the birth of artistic handicrafts and philosophies, representing our society. This study may uncover some useful knowledges buried for a long time concerning water resources, disaster prevention, construction and environmental problems.
Hachiro-Gata is located about 20 kilometers to the north of Akita City, and had an area of 22, 024 hectares.It was the largest lake in Japan next to Lake Biwa. The reclamation of the polader Hachiro-Gata has been undertaken as a national work in 1957.There were many difficult matters for the civil engineering, and the civil engineers were faced some unusual problems.This is because of the fact that Hachiro-Gata differed previously reclaimed polders in Japan by its muddy soil depth (50m) and its size (22, 000 ha).It is worth mentioning that this work can be considered as a significant event in the world's history of civil enginnering. After 7 years, Ogata-mura was born as a new model farm village in 1964.The census of the 1982 gives the population of the village as 3, 318, and the farming population is 2, 882. The aim of this study is to make clear some characters of the reclaimed works from view point of the civil enginnering, and to grasp some social effects of Ogata-mura upon neighboring farm society.
Development of Railway rail used in Japan (1872-1930's) is traced by verifying the rolled mark and the cross-section of individual rails remaining in various forms and in various places. In this 2nd report, rails used by railways other than the national railways are described: rails of private railways, tram rails, light rails, imported used rails and others. Most of these were imported from overseas until 1920's: from U.S.A., U. K., Germany, Belgium and other countries. As for cross-sectional design, the American practice had been widely accepted until the Japanese original sections 40N, 50N and 50T were proposed and adopted as the standard in 1961.
The rapid transit railway network in Tokyo consists of thirteen lines.This network in based on a conception at the dawn of a new age before 1945 when the developrent plan of five or seven subway lines was fomed. This article enurerates chronologically the charge of the develognent plan for rapid transit railway network in Tokyo and private plans based on researches and investigations of pioneers at the dawn of a new age from 1906 to about 1940, describing the background of those days in the conception.
In 1932, the urban road system in Tokyo, which had been destroyed by an earthquake, was constructed according to Shinsai Fukko Plan.This is the first large scale construction of the modern urban street system in Japan. This paper deals with the road-side planting plan in Shinsai Fukko plan.It was espacially discussed that the relation between the road-side planting-plan and thedesign of the bridge.