In Japan the first notable modernization in bridges started in 1910's in the main city planning projects. The bridges were designed with careful study as one of the important elements of modern Westernized urban space which planners aimed to build. In this paper the author surveyed bridges in Osaka City before World War II and reports the cases which can be highly valued from the urban design point of view. The main results are as follows; There were a few cases in which bridges were designed in a set of other urban elements that were large buildings facing the bridge, a pedestrian street along the river side and the Nakanoshima park in the civic center. The arrangement of the arch bridges, which were regarded as the best form to build beautiful urban space, reflected not only the geological conditions but also the importance of the location. The aesthetic ideal in bridge design had shifted from the decorative and rather classic beauty to the simple and polish one based on structural form as advance in engineering technology and realization of economic efficiency.
The Central Park in New York City is the fist municipal urban park in U. S. A., established in 1858. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role and influence of the Central Park from the point of view of the historical development of landscape architecture in U. S. A. The following four points have analysed in this paper. First; the establishment of the Centeral Park caused a nation-wide municipal urban park movement and many big parks and park systems were created as infrasturcture of the city planning. Second; the planning concept of the Central Park was to create a wide pastoral scenery, within highly developed Urban environment, for the park was regarded as lungs of city and also it had a great contribution to citizen's recreation and welfare. Third; To accomplish the above ideal, the technique of civil engineering took a great role, especially on the thorough drainage system, and the separate road system. Fourth; New professional, “Landscape Architecture” was created from the construction of the Central Park.
Studies on flood control techniques of the Tokugawa era have been done from the Meizi period up to the present time. Previous studies concluded that river improvements during those days were conducted by two largest river improvement schools, namely “Kantouryu” and“Kisyuryu”. However, this conclusion and some other conclusions that were obtained through the scarcity of literatures are doubted by recent studies. Besides, these conclusions describe only the policy, and do not, in any way, report the details of flood control techniques during the Tokugawa era. This study traces the Tokugawa era through written laws promulgated by the Tokugawa Shogunate in connection with flood control techniques. Thus, a thorough investigation of the flood control techniques during the Tokugawa era through these written laws is a primary objective. Results obtained from this study will then be useful in supplementing existing literatures describing flood control techniques of the Tokugawa era.
The environmental planning become to involve the spatial identicalcharacteristics found out by means of analysis on historical literacy, written books, drawn maps and soon. This study is to produce a concept in event management aiming environmentalb etterment from interpretation the contents of aqua-culture of the noted springs and wells on Uemachi-hill. The results from these analyses as follows: 1) the fresh springs and wells of Uemachi-hill were indispensable for lives of peoplc in Osaka especially before 1890. 2) Before modern water supply, water carriers named as MIZUYA delivered clean water to citizens. 3) In Edo era peoples were conscious of the nature of pureness, sweetness, sustainability and holliness as drinking water. Then we planed and managed an public-participated event named as ‘UEMACHI-DAICHIMIZU MEGUR I’ in which the concept introduced from the historically relationship of human and springs/wells of Uemachi-hill had the main theme as‘You play as MINYA.’ articipants enjoyed town watching and to bring water in one well and to throw water into another dried-up well as a ceremony for environmental resuscitation.
This study is part of the fundamental research being conducted on engineers in Taiwan covering the Japanese period. Nagao Hanpei, from documents gathered, was the most prominent figure serving as President in the Organization of Building Construction in Taiwan during the initial period of the Japanese administration. Nagao Hanpei was a 1881 graduate of the Tokyo Imperial University. He was invited to “Taiwan So-toku-fu” to be the Chief Engineer of the conoly from Dec. 1898 to Sept. 1910. During that time he also became a member of several advisory committees of the “So-toku-fu”. This enabled him to have a strong influnce on the infrastraucture activities of Taiwan during th period. Through an examination of Nagao's works, the development of organizations related to building construction can be view more clearly.
A. Aoyaaa, the 23rd Chairman of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, was a well-known civil engineer for his triumph with the Dhkouzu-bunsui at the Sinanogewa River in 1931. However his achievements during his Panama Canal years were rarely recorded except for his essay “P anama Unga No Hanasi (A tale of the Panama Canal)”. During my work in Panama over the passed two years, I lobbied for permission to view his personal records from the PCC, Now, I would like to introduce not only his extensive works on the Canal but also his virtuous behaviour as seen through the eyes of the isthmian Canal Commission (ICC). Aoyama worked from 1904 to 1911 in ICC. At the beginning, he was put in the hardest field survey team, and moreover yellow fever and malaria spread through work force. Although he had gotten two close scrapes with death during the survey work, he stood for the hardship. Later, he moved to the Cristobal and Gatun Division. He had always.done excellent work, been appreciated and promoted in every field. His seven years' works in Panama fostered his virtuous personality and excellent ability.
明治初頭、イギリス人、R. H. ブラントンによって大阪築港計画が策定された。大阪府知事後藤象二郎の依頼によるものだが、本計画が我が国最初の欧米人による築港計画であった。それまでの大阪港は中の島周辺を中心とする河口港であったが、土砂堆積のため水深が浅く、西洋大型船の入港に支障が生じていた。ブラントンは安治川の河口を海近くで付替え、港湾を河川から分離する計画を提案した。この後、1897 (明治30) 年の工事着手までオランダ人技術者によりいくつかの計画が提案されるが、その端緒になったものである。
Richard Henry Brunton was a foreign engineer hired by the National Government of Japan in early Meiji era. On the 8th of August, 1868, he arrived at Yokohama from England in order to construct lighthouses in Japan. His activity in Japan did not only cover lighthouses' constructions but it also covered a wide range of occupation, e.g., city and port planning, railway and telegraph construction, etc. On the 6th of June, 1871, Brunton surveyed the mouth of the Shinano River in the Niigata district. The mouth of the Shinano River had been used as a port since the early history of Niigata. In 1858, the treaty of amity and commerce was concluded between Japan and America. This treaty advocated that Niigata Port, as a treaty port, would be opened to foreign trade from 1868. However, due to the sand obstacle at the mouth of the Shinano River, trade did not flow very smoothly. The purpose of Brunton's survey, therefore, was to remove this natural sand obstacle, thereby making a new plan for a Niigata port. This study is aimed at researching into the contents of Brunton's survey in Niigata. Results of this study clearly show that Brunton was a pioneer in devising modern flood controls in the Niigata district.
本研究は、土木技術者の顕彰事例に関して、アンケート調査および現地調査等の結果をとりまとめたものである。調査の結果、全国から192件の事例が報告された。本研究では、それらを有形と無形の顕彰に分類し集計するとともに顕彰所在地の分布も示した。その結果、さらに調査は継続される必要があるものの、初めて全国的な顕彰の実態が明らかとなった。 事例分析においては、特色ある顕彰例としてファン・ドールン、デ・レーケ、田辺朔朗、青山士、青函トンネルと瀬戸大橋、R. H. ブラントンの6例を取り上げ、より詳細な内容を示すとともに、顕彰行為に含まれる問題点および今後の課題等について言及した。