The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construction of street network in HEIJO (PYONGYANG; at present) between 1910-1945 under Japanese rule. HEIJO was one of the most important and traditional city through Korean history, for the capital city of PYONG-AN-DO in Lee Dynasty Era, or HEIAN-NANDO in Japanese Colonial Era. The following characteristics have been clarified. (1) Street network under Japanese Colonial Era, had been constructed without utilizing the traditional street network from Lee Dynasty Era. (2) The construction had not been so positive in comparison with that in KEIJO (SEOUL; at present). (3) The construction had been related to laying tracks of streetcar.
Planned Road and Zoning System the most important elements for the Urban Planning. This paper is the historical analysis of the transition of Planned Road and Zoning System in Tokyo wards which were authorized by the planning institutions. In 1888 of the Meiji Period, Tokyo Municipal Ordinance was established, and the only original Planned Road was authorized according to this ordinance and the planned area was the inside of the old city of Tokyo. In 1919 of the Taisho Period, National Urban Planning Law was established, and the Planned Road and the Zoning System in the whole area of Tokyo wards were established according to this. Law at the beginning of Showa Period before World War II. The policy and the standard of the urban planning were changing at each times, but the Urban Planning of Tokyo was continuing basically until now after World War II. And we also have been able to find out that the Zoning System was strongly affected by the Planned Road.
A section of the urban expressway No.8 near from the Shinbashi station to Kajibashi area has been constructed in the 1950's by the method applying private sector on the roof of long-ranged buildings which had occupied a space of the former outer moat. The purpose of this study is to search the details of the operation and the planning idea for the urban expressway above the former outer moat on the basis of the old administrative materials and the records of the Metropolitan Assembly and the National Diet, and also to make clear about the historical details of road planning, sight planning and schemes which united with the architecture to appreciate them in the light of the present.
Farming fields of “Jori” system have overspread at alluvial fans in the foot of Minou mountain ranges of middle reaches of the Chikugo river from ancient times. And at the bottom lands the irrigation water courses were constructed in Edo period. Irrigation systems have been changed to those of concrete structures, using pumps or pipelines under the national irrigation development works. This study traces the transition of irrigation systems in order to find the characteristics of traditional water control systems in this area. The following findings are obtained: 1) Various systems have spread reflecting the characteristics of 1) p laces respectively. 2) Systems have changed to macro-type after the time of high level of economic growth, in 1950's. 3) The “Motase” has been operated as a traditional irrigation system. 4) Unlike modern techniques, the distinctive feature of traditional irrigation system is that the structure contains the constructing process and expresses rythms of the nature.
supplement these studies, this paper investigates the weir techniques under the flood control system in the Edo era. In an attempt to consider this topic in a wider perspective, some irrigation weirs and some river separation projects are included in this investigation. In those days, the weirs which divert river flow from main streams to diversion channels had been constructed at the mouth of the diversion channels. The structures of these weirs were of two types. One type allows flood to overflow pass the top of the weir gate. The other type has an opening at the center of the weir gate to keep the normal flow toward a diversion channel for use in irrigation and water transportation. During the Edo era, these weirs were built up of only a combination of natural materials, e. g., stones, soil, wood and plants. As such, these were, consequently, broken down by floods in a few years' time. Each Prefectural management, therefore, had to repeatedly repair its diversion weir to keep its flood control system using a diversion channel. Due to these technical weakpoints in the diversion weir during the Edo era, some big projects in the construction of diversion channels could not be started. These weak points had been solved by the development of modem weir technology by Japanese river engineers. The unfinished projects were then carried out using the modem technology. This paper also clears some structural and constructional techniques of weirs under the irrigation and the river separation project used during the Edo era.
There were three kind of river-crossing styles-wading, ferrying, and bridges-along the Tokaido (an old trunk road) in the Edo era. the reason why the difference among three styles was occured has not been discussed very much, though many researchs was done on each style individually.It is generally accepted that the Oigawa wading system has been developed under the military purpose of defending an old capital Edo, or under the political purpose of supporting relay stations. However, it can be pointed out that both technical and socio-economic factors affected even more significantly in the process of each river-crossing style formation. As for tecnical considerations, river bed slope, depth of water, and geological feateres, and others have come to confirm the difference of rivercrossing styles. As for the socio-econdmic considerations, the formation of the wading styles was inferred through assessment with the number of days forbidden to wade, the fare system depending on the depth of water, and the fare system of other river-crossing styles. Nevertheless, the wading system itself is assumed to be economically irrational. From the economic point of view, it is analysed that due to a small number of passengers at that time, constructing the long spanned bridge was uneconomical.
The experience on the infrastructure projects in the developing country will give us the enormous information so as to make a policy on the technical assistance for the other developing country, as well as in the developed country. From the said view point, this paper firstly briefed the history on the development of land transport networks and evidenced the role of foreign assistance which performed on the land transport development in Thailand from late 19 century, which is the one of most successful developing country in the world and has received a great amount of assistance. On the second part, the economical impact of the national highway development on the agriculture production was measured by applying the imputed value added model to the case of route 2 and 24 which have been developed with the foreign assistance such as USAID and connected the Northeast region to Bangkok. Also, the damages on the forest coursed by the highway development and regional development was analyzed as the case of one of disadvantage of land transport development. Finally, the problem on the transport project appraisal and the way of its assistance was discussed.
Bangkok is the famous city for the worst traffic congestion recently. For this reason, the lack of street network and rail transport system used to be mentioned as well as the high demand for motorcars. A lot of transport projects such as Sky Train, has been carried to alleviate this pressing problem. However, there is the great difference on the transition of urban structure in Bangkok with the westem city. Thus, the transport system in the Bangkok might be cautiously planned with regard for this historical difference. This paper addressed the transition of urban structure in Bangkok historically and reconfirmed the scheme of urban traffic problem. As the result, it was concluded that the mutual relations between street network and waterway must be regard on the urban and transport planning in order to alleviate not only trafficcongestion in short term but also sewage problem.
The sub-city centers of Tokyo Metropolitan Area such as Shibuya, Shinjuku and Ikebukuro have played an important role in sustenance of the socio-economic activity of Tokyo. The transition of the said sub-city centers, however, have never examined, especially the relationship with the suburban railways which was concentrated to the sub-city centers and was responsible to the transformation of their hinterland. The purpose of this research is to retain the firm grasp on the transformation of the hinterland of sub-city centers together with the development of suburban railways and distinguishes their effect on the transition of the sub-city centers by comparing between Shibuya's and Ikebukuro's hinterland. As the result, it was concluded that the low potential in the hinterland of Ikebukuro area has been the cause of the delay on the transition of Ikebukuro as the sub-city center comparing with Shibuya.
In Nagoya by both of land readjustment introduced by 1919 Town Planning act. and land consolidation carried out until then good residential area in the suburbs were builded in cooperation with land owners and planners. The style of this development is even unequal and ideal, but in practically there were not so a lot of area which had been completed with the original policy. The following three points have considered in this paper. First; development policy is arranged. Second; weakpoints involved the policy and factors prevented from realization are pointed out. Third; plans realized finally is considered in addition to knowledge given by present circumstances.
本論は、土木史研究、第13号 (93) 掲載の「THE JAPAN MAIL米英橋梁論争」の続編として、本論争中からNOT A BRIDGE BUILDERの手紙を取り上げたものである。 この手紙は、Waddellの著書を高く評価したThe Japan Mail紙の書評を受けて、NOT A BRIDGE BUILERという匿名で同誌のCorrespondence欄に投稿された、Waddellに対する反論文である。これは、約半年間に渡るMail紙上の米英橋梁論争の火蓋を切るという、重要な役割を果たした。また、多方面から数多くの論争項目を取り上げて、以後の論争のベースとなった点でも重要である。 以下では、まず手紙の概要を原文に沿って招介し、続いて主な論争項目をリスト・アップして、Waddellの主張とNOT A BRIDGE BUILDERの反論を比較・整理した。最後に、本論争における、この手紙の位置付けと評価について検討した。
Biwa Lake Water Channel was planned for the purposes of navigational services between the Biwa Lake and the Yodo River and irrigation, city water supply and industrial power supply for Kyoto Its construction was commenced in 1885 (Meiji 18th Year) by the Kyoto prefectural Goverenment. The project plan was prepared by the Kyoto Prefectural Government and submitted to the Home Department for approval and application of the central government subsidy. The Home Department asked its Consulting Engineer de Rijke to conduct on-site inspection of the porjectplan and sought his opinion thereof. The paper is to introduce de Rijke's opinion from his letters written to Ir. G. A. Escher residing at his home country Holland and to compare with the comments that some Japanese made about his opinion.
From ancient times, the roads to eastern area must pass through Shinano. As Shinano has many mountains, the roads were built crossing many passes (Misaka, Magome, Jumagari, Torii pass, etc.). The representative Tosan road and Kiso road which have origin in the prehistoric age or Jomon and Yayoi periods were built in Heian period. Tosan road which had steep Misaka pass was prosperous as a road in order to communicate governmental information urgently. Afterwords it declined in the end of the middle ages, because Misaka pass was extremely steep which it was hard for a horse to pass carrying a big load on his shoulder. On the other hand, Kiso road developed as an industrial road and met the golden age in Edo period. Today, Chuo expressway passes under Misaka pass. The progress of tunnel technology overcame the steep pass.