Composite bridge which had been developed in western countries was introuduced to Japan after the Second World War. Bridges in composite construction were sharply ineresed and reached the peak in 1970's. The first standard specification for composite road bridges was also established in the 1960's. After the beginning of the 1980's onword, composite bridges had lost popularity because of frequent failures of reinforced concrete slabs due to increasing traffic laod and now, compsite bridge has been a minor solution for bridge construction. In this paper the development of composite road bridges both in western countries and Japan are clarified to examine one of the characteristics of Japanese bridge tecchnologies.
This paper presents the investigations on the historical arch-type stone-masonry bridges, carried out by the authors between 1994 and 1996 in Japan and China. These bridges were built several hundred years ago and are still in use. Authors studied the actual examples of the damage and the repair of these bridges by classifying them based on the reasons of damage. And the structural characteristics of arch-type stone-masonry bridges were examined. Finally a technical discussion has been presented concerning the repair and conservation of arch-type stone-masonry bridges in the future.
Kato Kiyomasa became the Load of Higo (northern half of Kumamoto prefecture) in 1588 and the development of Kumamoto city began from that period. Choroku bridge was constructed under the direction of Kato Kiyomasa and it is believed to be the first bridge over the Shirakawa river which runs across the Kumamoto city from east to west. Because of swift-moving waters of the Shirakawa during the rainy season, this wooden bridge was demolished and reconstructed repeatedly. From the second half of Meiji era, people wished eagerly for a strong steel bridge against the flood and the former Choroku bridge was realized in 1927 as the largest steel tied-arch of Japan. This paper describes the design concept of the former Choroku bridge. The contextual meaning of the bridge site is discussed based on the research of documents and local news papers about the successive Choroku bridges and citezen's activities for the realization of the steel bridge. It is concluded that the understanding of regional sociological history as well as technological history are very important criteria for the evaluation for civil engineering structures
The history of sluices and weirs which were built of brick and stone in Saitama Prefecture in the Meiji Era is described in this paper. In Saitama Prefecture, the brick sluice and weir construction industry lasted from 1887 until 1921. During these years, more than 190 brick sluices and weirs were constructed, and more than 12 million bricks were used in their construction. In contrast, stone sluices and weirs were constructed from the Edo period to the Meiji Era.
lzuniozaki Town in Niigata Prefecture is a slenderly extended town along the Sea of Japan It was a prosperous town since the ancient time. Running parallel from its coast, about 200 to 300 meters, there were several protruding rocks. These rocks helped diminish the strength of entering waves. Consequently, the area along the coastline has become a very good natural harbor. During the Edo Period, the town had become the landing port of gold and silver produced from Sado island. Consequently, embankment and shipbuilding technology had developed. In 1873 (Meiji 6), Japan's first oil drilling operation started in its coast. In 1888 (Meiji 21), a traditional embankment and shipbuilding technology was applied practically, making Japan's first undersea oil extraction a success. This is six years earlier than a similar operation done in USA.
A second half of the 1950s, Tokyo Metropolitan City Planning Council approved the underground parking garage construction at the part of Hibiya Park in the central area of Tokyo. In this council, many members discussed the right and wrong of the parking garage construction concerning the fundamental law, ownership, supervision, toll system and management by private enterprise. On march 1957, this planning and project were approved at the Council. The Japan Highway Corporation (public sector) began the construction this parking garage and spent one year and eight months. The total cost was about thousand and forty million yen. This garage began the operation on June 1960, and is now managing by private enterprise.
The basis of Hobe city in Meiji era was constracted by the projects that constracted the new road and improved the land from 1888 to 1910. The representatives of land owners in these projects area carried out these projects, and all land owners offered part of there land and bor the expense for these projects at the fixed rates based on there contracts in these projects So, aren't these projects thought time prototype of the present land-readjustment. projects.
This study was first attempted to obtain the knowledge of the goverment policy taken during the period from late Meiji Era to mid-Taisho Era to streamline buried materials underground in Tokyo, and to clarify the detail of the pipe subway plan of the Reconstruction Program after Kanto Earthquake.The study revealed the scale of the plan which could be unrivaled by any other plans ever experienced in the countries in Europe, the cost to maintain the system, and the background where the plan was wrapped up being limited in an experiment-purposed execution.
The Imperial Palace was formerly Edo Castle, which was originaly built in 1457 according to the plans of Dokan Ota, and then came under the control of Ieyasu Tokugawa in 1590. It was constructed as the residential castle of the Tokugawa Shogunate, and almostly completed in 1636. The present stone walls suffered from many disasters, and were repaired on all such occasions. After Meiji era, it was badly damaged by the Kanto Earthquake in 1923. Up to the present, it was unknown what kind of method was applied to the repair-works for the stone walls at the time. As a result of recent investigation on the archives of repair-works after the Earthquake at the Ministry of Imperial Household, we made clear that the stone walls suffered from the Earthquake had been restored by the wet masonry in the interior structure, although they look like the dry masonry in appearance.
During 1820s, Seguin brothers was a French firm well known for suspension bridges and steamboat navigation. In 1825, they started negotiations with French government for the construction of a railway line from the Saint-Etienne coal field to the Rhone Valley and The city of Lyon. During a long trip of 1825-26 in England and Scotland, they visited the famous first public railway of Stockton & Darlington and gathered much information about steam railway traction and locomotives as linked with railway line design. Their personal engineering and managerial background gave us a very good understanding of the British technological system for railways, and its tremendous potential for heavy transportation. Such understanding was not only a ‘copy’ by the way of buying materials, wagons, and locomotives, but also a critical reflection on the technical choices made by the British engineers. For example, they refused the common point of view of that time for the general design of a line, i. e., the primacy of fixed engines for inclined planes. This paper presents the development of locomotives of the Saint-Etinenne & Lyon railway (Le Chemin de fer entre Saint-Etienne et Lyon) form the viewpoint of its design, construction and first uses. Major points discussed include: 1) the two Stephenson's locomotives bought for this railway, 2) the first Seguin's French patent for the famous tubular boiler, 3) locomotive construction in Perrache, Lyon. This study highlights the originality of Marc Seguin's locomotives.
Improvement works of Jinau-river, the largest river in Toyama prefecture, were performed twice during the latter Meiji era, Abstruct of these works is described in historical materials published by Toyama city and Toyama prefecture. This paper provides new aspect of these improvement works especially of the process of accomplishment based on unpublished materials owned by Ynkitaro Takada, which were newly found by author several years ago and also makes some investigation on the difference drown by existing records. It was also found Johannis de Rijke, who had been a technical advisor of the Joganji-river improvement works, had been also participated in the JinaU-river projects, The contents of his construction planning even today, enlighten us not only in theory but also in construction method.
In order to clear the functions of the floodway in the delta area, the history of the floodway development and the branch channel closing and the actual condition of the floodway were examined based on the consideration on the topogra phy and the geology. As the results, two conditions as the floodway of the excavated channel and the kept branch channel on the delta were confirmed: 1) For small capacity with the discharge less than 100% both the mainstream and the branch channel. 2) For restricting the channel separation by the existence of the water use forms on the old main channel.
The Ministry of Construction has already undertaken a policy, including the Comprehensive Flood Control Measures initiated in 1977 to prevent overflow by promoting penetration of rain into soil and building temporary rain reservoirs. Another example is the 1987 Overflow Control Measures, which sets forth measures to be taken when a flood runs over levees. And, the Flood Restraining Forest Belt to make the overflowing current run gently is proposed as a priority policy in 1996. These recently proposed measures confirm that the present situation warrants the revival of the Edo philosophy and approach of accepting a certain level of overflowing. With advanced technology available, floods would occur far less frequently than in the old days anyway. Nevertheless, the new approach and the Edo approach share the same acceptance that floods are sometimes inevitable. One feasible way to implement the above policy would be to adaptively apply the flood restraining forest belt popularized in the Edo Era. Fortunately, we already have large levees; flood control would be complete if these belts were laid covering the levees. Considerable attention has been paid to the semi-natural river engineering method and the multi-natural river engineering method. In this respect, the flood restraining forest belt may be the ultimate semi-natural river engineering method as it provides a corridor of a biotope connecting the forest and the sea, making the river more natural, and improving the riverside scenery. It is strongly recommended all the remaining forest belts be conserved and efforts be made to restore them where they have been lost.
This paper make it clear that the two truss girders across the Daiya river were constructed across the Horomui river and across the Ikusyunbetsu river by Horonai railway in 1884-1885. We discovered unknown pictures of them taken in Meiji era and found that they have same shapes as the truss girders across the Daiya. We investigated official documents of Horonai railway to find out their date of construction and their specification. And we evaluate the value of them from a view point of civil engineering archaeology.
Tokyo Port is in the innermost environs of Tokyo Bay which is itself an enclosed area. This Port is located in an estuary which was an old delta, and is surrounded by rivers which feed into the bay. The grounds formed are very poor soils. A gentle sloping revetment is an indispensable component of the water front. But, in Tokyo Port, the upright seawall was constructed for reclamations and the prevention of disasters, and thereby, many natural coasts were lost. Since then, various countermeasures have been executed to improve upon them. We need to create a sloping revetment adopted to the ecosistem as the conception of biodiversity is the demand of our present time. Therefore, we also recommend the combination of the diversity of sea organisms with the revetment property, and also to expand new object establishment to many areas. In consequence, the water front with easy access to the sea will enable the creation of the revetment in Tokyo Port.
Edo had well-woven urban structures composing of waterways and streets, These structural complexities have interested researchers for a long time. The purpose of the study is to understand the principles of design in the residential areas of Edo which had not been fully understood. In the study, using modem surveying aps, the sizes of the blocks and the angles of the crossing streets were measured and analyzed, considering the effect of topography. The authors estimatedand certified the formation of the urban structure in each residential area, and the method in which the blocks were arranged concerning main streets and waterways.
There were five major stone-masonry arch bridges across the Kotsuki river in Kagoshima City till recently. Two of them were seriously damaged due to heavy rains which fell on the region on Augist 6, 1993. For carrying out the river conservation works and for avoiding the collapse of the remaining three bridges in future, it was decided to move these bridges to a new place. Therefore the bridges were dismembered physically and were investigated in detail.This paper presents a comparative study of those results in relation to stone-masonry arch bridges of China, Korea and Europe. By clarifying the fundamental differences between these arch bridges, an attempt is made to understand the characteristics and the contents of the arch bridges across the Kotsuki river from technological history perspective.
Late in the Edo era, the construction works have been promoted in parallel with the TENPOU reforms in the SATSUMA clan, and these successes have produced a factor of the modernization of Japan. ZUSHO Hirosato, principal of the clan, have actively promoted infrastructures, such as river improvement, drought countermeasure and transportation preparation. Both IWANAGA Sangorou, chief of stonemason, and ASO Tetsuya, master carpenter, have played important parts in these construction works. The construction techniques of arch stone bridge that came down from China early in the Edo era, have made rapid progress with the numbers of construction works and structure plans, under the step-up in the agricultural production and the economy of the clan late in the Edo era. Both the five stone bridges of multiple spans that crossed Kotsuki river and IWANAGA who produced the five bridges are monumental values in the development history of arch stone bridges.
The five stone-masonry bridges over the Kotsuki River, which flows along the center of Kagoshima City, have provided a historical outlook to this City. Among them, the Nishida Bridge has ornamental balustrade with beautifully designed balusters and this bridge is very famous as the main gateway bridge of the old Satsuma province. This paper investigates why these stone-masonry bridges were chosen for construction in kagoshima, which lies at the southern edge of Kyusyu, the circumstances of construction of these bridges and so on.
The five stone-masonry arch bridges over the Kotsuki river in Kagoshima city were constructed around 150 years ago and were in use till recently. But two of them were washed out due to the record rainfall which fell in August 1993. Therefore it was decided to carry out river conservation works and move the three remaining bridges to a different place and preserve them there. This paper investigates the changing conditions of the five stone-masonry arch bridges in relation to the variations in social environment from a historical perspective. An attempt is made to understand the cultural significance of present civil engineering structures. The procedure for general agreem6nt regarding the preservation and conservation of historical structures is also discussed.
This paper investigates the history of flooding and flood prevention measures concerning The Kotsuki river from the end of Edo period to the present. The construction of stone-masonry bridges in the Satsuma povince, the development of downtown area and the associated flood prevention measures are discussed. The possible reasons for the over flow of the Kotsuki river during the heavy rains of August 1993 and for the collapse of stone-masony bridges are presented. The general problems of flood prevention measures for the present-day urbaniza tion are also considered.