I chose five temples in Kamakura city, and mentioned about the historic backgrounds of the time those gardens were constructed. I especially emphasize the unique topographies, emergence of samurai, and Zen. As the first step, I refer to documents about the construction of the garden, and consider of them with the civil engineering point of view. As a result, the following points were made clear. One is that the Kencho-ji temple had realized the garden that was contrary to the main-stream methods of that period. They had managed to create several viewing-points in the narrow site. The other is that we can find several aspects between Kamakura garden and contemporary Kyoto garden such as “karesansui.” And, finally, the Kencho-ji garden is the first example where the concept of classification of the space was applied, which was already common in architecture. I had tried to capture the general ideas of how the conceptual aspects of Japanese zen garden was imported from China in this essay.
The castle town of Osaka had unique urban fabric composed of well-developed infrastructure, such as streets, waterways and drainage. These elements have long interested researchers in the fields of urban history, architectural history and others. However, the principles of the design of the city have not been fully understood. Therefore, there has been a growing request to perform research on it in the field of history of civil engineering from the viewpoint of the infrastructure realignment of streets, waterways, drainage and others. The purpose of this study was to understand in Semba and Shimanouchi Districts: 1) starting points and standards of block layouts, 2) design units, and 3) the process of the development, directing attention to the relationship between infrastructures and block layouts. In the study, using modem surveying maps: 1) the size of blocks and building lots, 2) relationship between main streets and topography, 3) relationship between drainage and topography, and 4) method and year of development of waterways were analyzed. As a result, the study has shown that there were four design units in Semba District, and that each unit had its own standards of block layouts different from others. Also, the study has clarified that there were seven design units in Shimanouchi District, and has explained the process of the development in Shimanouchi District, arranging these units chronologically. These results are more logical explanation of the principles of the design of Osaka than the result of the previous studies and can add a new explanation to the design principles of the castle town of Osaka.
In Edo period, coastal service played an important role. The harbor facilities-“Gangi”, “Hato”(a breakwater), “Tadeba”(Docks), “Jyoyatou”(a lighthouse), “Funagura”(a ship house) were built up in many port towns of the Inland Sea. Now, most of these facilities were broken down and rebuilt. But at Tomonoura Hiroshima, several facilities are still existed and being used. Recently they are recognized as cultural assets by a resident's movement. So we need systematize a history and a function of them. For this purpose, this paper tries to understand over the general state of habor facilities in Tomonoura by following three steps. Firstly we collect each material of historical harbor facilities at Tomonoura, secondly make a drawing of facilities arrangement, thirdly excavate and measure existent habor facilities. This paper indicates the characteristics of historical facilities at Tomonoura from the following three view points: 1) There were at least three times big constructions in the late Edo period. 2) An remaining rate of “gangi” is estimated 44%. 3) A size and a location of “Tadeba”(Docks) is presumed.
ÔKUMO Tosimiti, the Secretary of the State for Home Affairs of the Japanese Government in Meizi Era, proposed the seven development projects in the northeastern area of Japan in March 1878. The construction of the Nobiru Port was the core project among these development projects and the first port construction works that introduced the modern western port engineering technology in Japan. The master planning and engineering designing was formulated in charge of C. J. Van Doom, the chief engineer of the Dutch civil engineering team employed by the Japanese Government. Nobiru. Port construction project started in July 1878. The construction works of the inner port, the first stage of the total plan, was completed in 1882. But the two jetties in the mouth of the inner port were destroyed by the high waves through the typhoon in September 15, 1884, which caused the abandonment of the Nobiru Port. This study revealed the following points from the standpoint of port engineering technology that were not clarified until now; 1. We estimated the wave height that caused the collapse of the jetties. 2. We revealed the structure of the jetties through the decipherment of the old documents. 3. We revealed the process of the collapse of the jetties.
Against the background of expanding economic exchanges between Japan and foreign countries and the growing use of containers in marine transportation, the container cargo volume handled in Japanese ports is rapidly increasing. Furthermore, the trade value of container cargo accounts for over 40% of the total of seaborne trade in Japan, thus making container cargo trading one of the most important modes of shipping, closely connected to people's lives. Under these circumstances, and with the goal of continuously contributing to the stable development of the nation and further improvement of living standards, this paper summarizes and evaluates the historical transition of traditional management and administration systems for foreign trade container terminals, while at the same time discussing, from a practical point of view, management and administration systems for such terminals which are desirable for the future.
When urban development projects in Robe during Meiji era began and were finish-ed, the land transfer from and to the road administrator and the land ledger were proceeded This Paper shows these procedures are thought a prototype of current legal systems for the projects by studying how these procedures were formed
Common underground ducts, which were planned to be laid under the park near the west gate of the Shinjuku Station in 1930s, were done as a part of the urban planning project.ln the electric pole removal plan of the Tokyo Postwar Reconstruction Project, the Tokyo metropolitan goverment attempted to include the common underground ducts in the urban planning, but since they were not expressly defined as the facility in the former Urban Planning Act, even after the discussion in the Urban Planning Committee, they could not be a facility which was legally provided. In the present Urban Plannning Act, the common underground ducts are not considerd as a facility of the urban planning, either.However, as far as the newly constructed roads in the D · I · D areas are concerned, if urban plannning are made under the condition that such roads are free from electric poles, the removal of the electric poles would be promoted.
There are 2 ways of evaluation in modern historic infrastructures. One is from the constructional point of view and the other is from the remains and sites point of view. The modern historic infrastructures were regarded as cultural properties about 10 years ago in Japan. But the evaluation of them is only limited from the constructional point of view. Therefore our study is trying to evaluate modern historic infrastructures from the remains and sites point of view. However many of them are still used, so there are some difficulties to evaluate them. We make an evaluation system for them and compare the difference between the constructional point and the remains and sites point. We indicate the following results. 1. We can make an evaluation system for the modern historic remains and sites. 2. Our evaluation system is better to find a lot of the characteristics of the historic infrastructures than the constructional evaluation system, for our system has historic items and locational items of the infrastructures. 3. Visiting the sites, we could have and find many new facts. Our evaluation system can find many meanings of the historic infrastructures and produce many rich images of them. It would be helpful to make a city planning when reviving the historic infrastructures and heritages.
This paper studies on the battery site of Meiji period to analyze the fields and functions of the civil engineering heritage. Firstly, the current state of the battery site in the whole country was classified into four kinds (the unuse type, the single use type, the crowd use type, and the removed type). Secondly, the fields are divided into four levels (a structure level, a district level, a regional level, and the geography level), and the two functions (experience and imagine) are pointed out. Finally, the relations between the fields and functions are discussed.
Form of elements around the pier of deck bridges is one of the dominant visual characteristics in bridge aesthetics. Some of historical stone arch bridges had various cut waters, balconies, holes that were made on the spandrel, orders or pilasters and so on. In this study, investigations have been conducted about the form of elements around the pier and the proportion between the pier thickness and maximum span of the bridge from Roman age to twentieth century. Some design standards in stone arch bridges were succeeded to the part of modem bridges, or some were arranged due to the difference of materials, structure and so on.
Introduction of reinforced concrete was a very important turning point in the history of elevated railway viaducts in Japan. Dr. Mikishi Abe (1883-1965) was one of the key persons to spread this technology. He entered Government Railways after graduating from the Department of Civil Engineering, Sapporo Agricultural College, in 1905, and went to lllinois University to study the newest technology about reinforced concrete. He returned to Government Railways from the U. S. in 1914, and designed the widest span arch bridge made by reinforced concrete in Japan. But his name was well known only in the architectural field before he became independent as an architect in 1920. Therefore, this report describes his achievement in the civil engineering field and his role as a civil engineer. From the results of this study, it is clear that he made an important contribution to the development of elevated railway viaducts.
This paper describes the development of bridge technology in modem Japan from the viewpoint of the diffusion of knowledge of design and theory of structures introduced from western countries. In the first half of Meiji Era (1868-1912) most of iron bridges were imported from western countries or designed and fabricated by foreign engineers hired by Japanese government. From the end of 19th century to the beginning of 20th century design and theory of structures had been started to diffuse, which was greatly supported by the publications on bridge engineering in Japanese language. In this study the process of the development of design and theory of bridge structures has been clarified and studied by examining the publications on bridge engineering.
In Kumamoto Prefecture, there were many flood protection works such as diversion structures, levees and groynes made of stones which were constructed by Kiyomasa Kato as a feudal lord in the early Edo era. However, most works have not been clarified with actual proof as to how they play a role in flood protection. In this paper, Kutsuwa Domo commonly employed by Kiyomasa, which entails the widening a river at the confluence or rushing points to weaken floods, was investigated from the viewpoint of historical river regulation methods by applying a hydraulic model to a Kutsuwa domo located at Shimada district in the Hamado river. The model scale was 1/150. The results of this paper showed that Kutsuwa domo was originally created by Kiyomasa, different from Kasumi bank (open levee) and effective works for floods exceeding the design limit.
The River Act was amended in 1997 in order to add flood-restraining forest belts, which allow a flood to run over levees as a flood control facility. Change were also made to reflect residents' opinions. Further more, a report on the use of traditional river improvement measures was submitted by the River Council in 2000. There are nine deversoirs on the Jobaru-River Basin of the Saga Plain, and these are also called NOKOSHI. They were constructed in the early Edo Era by traditional tale and are precious examples of classic flood control structures that allow overflowing. Very few of these remained after river improvement by modern measures undertaken since World War II. In this paper, we describe the historical details of the construction of NOKOSHI and then reevaluate the roles and effects of these from a new point of view. Secondary levees of NOKOSHI played an important role in reducing overflow damage, but most of these were removed. By forming flood-retarding basins, the effect of NOKOSHI is equivalent to that of the planned Jobarugawa Dam, but the cost-benefit evaluation is higher than that of the Dam. By using of NOKOSHI, flood damage can be controlled over the entire basin
The castle town is an urban area built around a castle, and is generally constructed by city planning. The greater parts of existing cities are founded on the castle towns, and two thirds or more of prefectural capitals are founded on them. The purpose of this study is to consider the transition process of castle towns. As results the railway were introduced dose to the castle town, the commerdal center of the town moved from main street to the area around the railway station. The expansions of it ies were changed from the neighborhood of main road to the neighborhood of railway station. Industrial factories were constructed at the fringe of built-up areas. In and around the castles there were situated the prefectural office or army fadlities.
In the 20th century the idea of preservation was developed. And in recent 2O years, people have started to recognize the importance of the civil work museums in many places. The issue of preservation was triggered by the ruin of Parthenon as the restoration of old architectural style. And now the issue has been changed to the environment as a wholc. From 1991 to 2000, “Open Air Museum including Dejima wharf” has been planned in Tokiwa-Dejima district. This museum is not for a specific article nor a facility. Main purpose of this museum is to reconstruct and exhibit the ancient civil works which played important roll in forming the city of Nagasaki. Secondary, as this new district has many products and facilities of civil engineering and civic design, we should exhibit these heritage to the general public.
Land Survey Training Center was set up by Makoto Kondo in Meiji 13 (1880). Hironoske Nakadate, whom I introduce in this paper, came to Tokyo from Hirosaki at about the same time when it was set up. The details of this journey have been recorded in Nakadate's Dochuki and also his notebook and other records written by him remain as the syllabus of those days. In this study I focus on his journey of about 700 kilometers from Hirosaki to Shiba-shinsenza (where Kogykusya Land Survey Training Center once stood) and show how long it took Nakadate to complete his jouney, and how he reached there as one example of the days when there was not any railway. In addition, I will show the curriculums of the Center.
Recent years, various problems concerning reinforced concrete (RC) structures have happened in Japan, and various discussions are being taken. To consider such problems, it seems to be important to improve an appearance and a development of the RC. For that, this study focuses the Hennebique Company, the first RC company in the world. In our study, aninitial RC technology in the world would be clarified according to the original materials of the company keptin France. As a primary part of the study, this paper overviews an establishment and a development of thecompany through a growth of an organization.
This study dealt with a construction process of modern water works in Ashikaga city. Generally, modern water works in Japan started for public health and urban environmentat Meiji Era. In case of Ashikaga city, there were constructed for a development of its ruralindustry, a textile and a die manufacture. Especially, there made sure of water for industrialuse and fire-fighting. At the result, we cleared up a construction process of modern water works in Ashikagacity and relation of their rural industry.
The old civilization is a typical example of the sustainable society, which may provide us with much information on it. Machu Picchu, one of the towns in Inca, was surveyed in 1999 and 2000 on the system of water supply and drainage to investigate sustainable systems which it might own. Machu Picchu had two springs for water resources. Water distribution was done with open channels made by stone. Water distributed to the town was utilized at a series of 16 fountains in cascade use and probably in time sharing. The first to the third fountains would be for ritual and others for drinking and irrigation. Machu Picchu had neither drainage nor wastewater treatment systems. The population in Machu Picchu was estimated around 2400 from the water supply capacity. The society of Machu Picchu was under severe restriction on water supply, and not safe on drinking water.