Journal of Historical Studies in Civil Engineering
Online ISSN : 1884-815X
Print ISSN : 1349-5712
ISSN-L : 1349-5712
Volume 24
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Yasuhiro HONDA, Ichiro KOBAYASHI, Michel COTTE
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 1-8
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focuses on the historical research of the Châtellerault Bridge constructed in 1900 in France. This bridge is known as the first ‘grand’ bridge in France. It is also known that the ‘système Hennebique’ developed by Francois Hennebique whose company constructed more than 1800 bridges during nearly 20 years. It is hardly possible to find a trace of the bridge construction by means of the reinforced concrete at that time. It means that the France was a developing country in terms of reinforced concrete bridge construction. But the situation of the reinforced concrete bridge would change drastically after the turning of the century, that is, it has become one of the main types of bridge construction. The year, the scale and the location of the Chatellerault Bridge construction is very significant to clarify the development of the reinforced concrete bridge in France.
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  • Masahiro MIYAKE
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 9-15
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Local stone is one of the important element of which stone structure composes the landscape in the foothill residential area. Mikageishi (granite), local stone in Mt. Rokko was used for the stone wall in the suburban developed from the end of the Meiji era to the beginning of the Showa era in the foothill of Mt. Rokko. This discourse clarifies that the realities of Mikageishi is the local industry and the use of local stone in the residential development in the foothill area had become full-scale since the end of the Meiji era. In conclusion, local stone received the peak period in modem ages, and excavated stone and local circulation stone were used for the stone wall in the residential area that had been developed in the age. After the world war II, the circulation was lost, and the cost became high in the stone wall with local stone.
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  • Takashi ITOH, Tsukasa SAITOH, Kousuke ITOH
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 17-24
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes the actual condition of the bridges constructed on the trunk road “Tokaido” in the Edo era (case study on Kanagawa prefecture). The used main reference is a data report (Tokaido-syukumurataigaicho) and a pictorial map (Tokaido-bunken-nobu-ezu) about “Tokaido”. At the result, there were 159 bridges in Kanagawa prefecture, the 59.8% of 159 bridges was stone bridge, the 31.4% of 159 bridges was wooden bridge which used ground on surface and the 8.8% of 159 bridges was wooden bridge. The constructor was Tokugawa Government or feudal lord, but Tokugawa Government built in many cases when the length of a bridge exceeded 3 ken (5.4m).
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  • Etsuro Suzuki
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 25-32
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An airborne cable system was first adopted by the Tokyo Dento Co., Ltd. in the Tokyo City to supply power for household light. After then, many public service corporations imerged in the field, but the Tokyo Dento Co., Ltd. acquired and consolidated all the corporations. In the meantime, the Communication Ministry granted a conditioned permission to corporations who plotted to lay cables underground to supply power for lights in the Tokyo City. That operations was developed over 11 among 15 wards in the Tokyo City in the Taisho Era. Though the underground wiring was implemented in the majority of wards in the city, the residents in the city never viewed roadscape without the sight of airborne cables which wer constructed by the earlier atarted corporations. The technologies of underground wiring developed by the Tokyo Municipal Electricity Bureau and the Nippon Dento Co., Ltd., were taken over and reflected on the Tokyo Reconstruction Project and they saw the light of day in laying cables common underground duct projects.
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  • Masaharu OOSAWA, Yuichi AIDA, Takayuki KISHII
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 33-40
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to emerge the transition of Land Readjustment (LR) projects with Land Acquisition (LA) in Japan. In general, it is said that LR is carried out by ‘Contribution’ and ‘Replotting’ measures without any LA. However, there are actually many cases that the land in the project area is purchased at an early stage of the project or before the project by the implementation body.
    As a result of this study, it is made clear that LR projects with LA have been carried out based on the background of each era and they are classified into five categories, 1) LA based on the excess expropriation, 2) LA for intensive replotting of railway right of way, 3) LA for the supply of the planned development site, 4) LA for the alleviation of Contribution ratio and 5) LA for the compensation of the decreasing in land value.
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  • Akio KUREBAYASHI, Kenichi MAEDA, Takashi ITOH
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 41-51
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study the authors examined the historical transition of wood, stone and brick bridges in Tokyo Santama Districts from Edo era to Taisho era. At first, we divided the structuresof bridges into three groups by districts by using “Shinpen Musashi Fudoki” a topography of this district written in the latter part of Edo era. Based on this study, we made clear that there had been at least 12 timber cantilever bridges in Nishitama District, and Meiji era had come, most of them had changed into timber strutted beam bridges, then they had changed into timber and iron truss bridges by introducing the technique building bridges of abroad after the letter half of Meiji era. Next we made clear the following. In Kitatama District, in the latter part of Edo era, that most of bridges had been stone girder bridges. Then, that there were 8 brick arch bridges from Nikkou-Bridge, the oldest one built in 1891, and they has formed the biggest group in Japan.
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  • Nobue NAKAJIMA, Naoto TANAKA, Takamasa AKIYAMA
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 53-61
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the Waju area where the Kiso Sansen Rivers (Kiso, Nagara and Ibi) run, there have been many floods since ancient days. A lot of knowledge and techniques have been invested in the river improvement projects. In this area, the original landscape and community spirit have been formed under the cultural climate. Therefore, the infrastructure management provides great influence to people in this area. In this paper, it is proved that the structure oftraditional landscape have been constructed as the community spirit to prevent floods in the Waju area And, the transition oflandscape is explained to be affected by infrastructure management and community formation.
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  • Miyuki NEGISHI
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 63-73
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: August 24, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the early years of French Revolution, the engineers of corps des ponts et chaussees were confronted with the engineas of corps royal du genie about the authority of constructions on the port, and a project of ‹unification › amang these two groupes, too. Because of any problems that they could presuppose their disordre in the indication betvveen the Ministrr of Military and that of Finances, not only the engineers of ponts et chaussees, but also the local administrators had opposed to the plan of this unification. This paper aimes to make clear issues following ; 1. Difference their origines and functions between the engineers of ponts and those of génie. 2. Controvercy about the constructions on ports, especially, at Dunkerque and at Le Havre. 3. Opinion realisic from the Administrator prefectural regarding the management of publics works.
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  • Akio KUREBAYASHI, Ken-ichi MAEDA, Takashi ITOH
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 75-94
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, the authors listed the concrete arch highway bridges that were built in Japan before World War II. And we classified them into the three types of arch bridges, single span, multi span deck types and through type, in addition, arranged chronologically and classified them into the areas, the structures, the designs and the designers. Next we analyzed characteristics of ages, areas, structures and designs of them. Based on this study, we found that those were built in Nagasaki, Kobe, Kyoto and Tokyo City in Meiji Era at first, Aichi and Ehime in Taisho Era, and next, those had made rapid progress though Reconstruction Program in Tokyo after Kanto-Earthquake and Urban Planning in Osaka City, and after that, the techniques of building spread in Kanto and Tohoku. And we made clear that most of spandrel-filled arch bridges were built below about 30m, and about 40 Melan-arches were built, and arch-rib structure as many as arch-ring structure were built, almost arches were built the fixed arch, most arcade-structure of arch-spandrel had been built for 10 years since 1927, and fixed arch-spandrel pediment changed to pasting stones then changed to concrete walls.
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  • Hideya FUKSHIMA, Yu NAKAI
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 95-102
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This thesis discusses on the design concept and design process of bridges of the Tokyo Reconstruction Work in Taisho era based on descriptions written by Enzo Ota, Yutaka Tanaka and engineers of the Bureau of Reconstruction about urban planning that is design of avenues, rivers and parks. This thesis shows a hypothesis that the design concept and design process of bridges were related to urban planning of Tokyo Reconstruction Work in Taisyo era.
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  • Takeaki SHONO, Masahiro MIYAKE
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 103-109
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Development has advanced in Sakogawa under the Tokushima castle along with the formation of the castle town. Sako was a place where stone for the Tokushima castle stones was quarried, and Sakogawa was used for transportation of local stone, too. Ishigaki was built on the both riverside, and this landscape is different form both side. About the Ishigaki of the Awa Aoishi continuously formed with the formation process of Sakogawa. This discourse is current consideration to the landscape preservation in the future. In conclusion, three ages exist in Sakogawa. They are ages of “Natural water road”, “Transportation for merchant” and “Drainage”. A lot of Ishigaki where it cost the left bank side were seen and it relates to the land use of the upper part.
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  • Makoto MATSUSHITA
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 111-120
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kobe Water started the water service in 1900. The original water system was planned by Mr. W. K. Burton (1856-1899), however, the actual construction design works were done by Japanese civil engineers. In particular Tojiro Sano designed Kobe Water's Nunobiki, Karasuhara and Sengari dam. In this paper the author will focus on the dam designer Tojiro and explore the proto-type of Kobe Water's three dams based on literature review, hearing research from a bereaved family of Tojiro and the information from site visit of classic dams in Britain. Also examined the influence of Victorian Water Engineering on early Kobe Water facilities by comparing actual facilities with text book of water supply.
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  • Kazuto MATSUO, Yuji HOSHINO, Ichiro KOBAYASHI, Yasuhiro HONDA
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 121-128
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of research is to clarify the origin of graceful shape of Hakusui dam. Authors thought that it was necessary to grasp the idea over a design and construction of a designer. Therefore, Attention is paid to Yasuo Ono, who was a designer and a construction supervisor. 123 construction photographs that he took are arranged, depending on construction stages, photographing places, and targets for photograph. Combining their patterns, the analysis is carried out. A reason why Yasuo Ono took photographs is guessed. Thus, the parts of Hakusui dam, which he thought to be important, are identified.
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  • Reiko NAGATA, Yoh SASAKI
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 129-139
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Methodology for preservation techniques of historical bridges is required in the current situation of increasing demands for preservation of civil engineering heritages. This paper aims to show a guide of techniques of repair and reinforcement of historical steel bridges. We investigated 9 historical steel bridges in Tokyo in the construction works to preserve them and their influence on appearances. The constructions are done for four aims, repair, reinforcement, and addition of new functions and improvement of appearance. General techniques are used in the most construction works for repair and reinforcement. Therefore we arranged the list of techniques of general bridge maintenance in order of aims and structure parts with the notice of using them for historical bridges. On the other hand the constructions for improvement appearances may largely change the impressions so that we also arranged the concepts and methods for them according to the preservation purpose.
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  • Kazunori WADA, Tetsuya OKAYASU, Makoto ICHYAMA, Ken-ichiro HAMAGUCHI
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 141-150
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Shingen Embankment built about 450 years ago by Takeda Shingen on the Fuji River and the Kamanashi River was designed to control flood flows in the Midai River (tributary) and the Kamanashi River by means of a series of flood control structures including Ishitsumidashi (stone masonry groins), Shougi-gashira (Japanese chess piece-shaped flow splitters), Hokkiri (dug channel), Juroku-ishi (sixteen large rocks used as energy dissipation works), Takaiwa (natural rock wall) and Kasumi-tei (discontinuous levees). The functions of these flood control structures have been subject to various interpretations, and some of those structures and their functions, such as the functions of a number of Shougi-gashira flow splitters and details on Juroku-ishi, which can only be guessed at today, are mysterious in many ways. This paper introduces an attempt at verifying the flow control technology made possible with these flood control structures by using a table-top hydraulic model developed with the aim of explaining the hydraulic phenomena involved.
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  • Kazunori WADA, Shigeru ARITA, Satoko GOTO
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 151-160
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is said that the Fuji River is the origin of Seigyu (crib spur) which is known as one of the typical traditional river works in Japan. This paper is to investigate the origin of Seigyu in this country by pursuing the kind of historical documents which include the description about the origin of Seigyu. Under the historical document “Jikatahanreiroku” published in 1794, there was a description about Seigyu as “Seigyu is a river method which originate from the period of Shingen, it was used as a measure of large rivers in Kosyu region”. This description is the origin and the tradition of “Seigyu originated at 'the large rivers in Kosyu' which is Fuji River” started to be known.
    Also, inclusive of the investigation about the origin of Seigyu, the regional differences of river works which could be read from the historical documents was observed.
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  • Jun TERAMURA, Takashi OKUMA
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 161-171
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Many discontinuous levees exist on the alluvial-fan rivers in the Hokuriku District, and these levees employ traditional technological techniques in their construction. Historically, many of these discontinuous levees were made into continuous ones. However, these open levees have been observed to appear again in recent years.
    Such traditional technology was developed over many generations by the practical experience of local residents, and could therefore be called a kind of “self-governed” technology. It is important to also note that the processes in which such technologies have been formed are themselves important within the context of such traditional technologies.
    The present report investigates the history of open levees on the Hokuriku District fan rivers, with respect to the various builders of these traditional levees. We attempt to show that differences in the individual builders are related to differences found in the form of these levees.
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  • Motoki ASANO
    2005 Volume 24 Pages 173-184
    Published: May 15, 2005
    Released: June 04, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Japan had significantly enhanced snow-removal operation with focusing on improving and spreading mechanized snow-removal works and extending its treatment length. On one hand, environmental impact caused by studded tire dust became a serious social issue since the late 1970's. Through the partial restriction of the studded tire use by local ordinances, this led to the implementation of the “Law for the Prevention of Studded Tire Dust” in 1990, which prohibits the use of studded tires under any circumstances. As a result of the law enforcement, it has greatly reduced environmental impact caused by studded tire dust. At the same time, however, making roadways extremely slippery, which could not be expected before the regulation was adopted, leads to increase the importance of road surface maintenance. So, with giving priority to surface maintenance over winter roadway projects, in addition to traditional snow-removal works, the studded tire regulation was a major turning point in the history of civil engineering. This paper discusses necessity for theoretical and comprehensive policy evaluation and accomplishment of accountability on snowy and icy road maintenance, considering negative effects suchas increased winter accidents, worsened winter traffic pattern and increased amount of deicing agent use.
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