PROCEEDINGS OF TUNNEL ENGINEERING, JSCE
Online ISSN : 1884-9091
ISSN-L : 1345-0832
Volume 4
Showing 1-50 articles out of 69 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 1-23
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Tomoaki ISHIDA, Tomoyuki NAKASUJI, Masaru OKUTSU, Hirotomo MURAKAMI, A ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 25-32
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, The width of the segment used the shield tunneling method tends to become wider. When the segment rings are jointed staggeringly, the shearing force generated by the splice effect will act on the longitudinal joint bolt. The bending stress generated by this shearing force is deemed to increase and concentrate on the end of the segment according to the increase of the width of the segment.
    The object of this study is to analyze the relationship between the width of the segment and the distribution of the bending stress experimentally, by using four types (width 300, 400, 500, 600mm) of flat-type RC segment models.
    Through this experiment, we found that the increase of the segment-width causes the concentration of the bending stress at the end of the segment. Therefore when designate the segment wider than 1200mm, it is necessary to examine this increase of the bending stress and consider the effective countermeasure.
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  • Kazuo YASUDA, Mitsugu NAKAGAWA, Hiroaki OTA, Minoru NAKAMURA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 33-40
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, it is required to develop a new type of tunnel lining segment that is suitable for rapid construction and automatic operation of shield tunneling. New Mechanically-jointed Segment, that is one of a boltless segment of tunnel lining, is developed for this purpose.
    This paper describes the result of efficiency of New Mechanically-jointed Segment Tunnel Lining, that is applied to the Tokyo Metropolitan Subway project line #12 in actual first use with automatic assembly system for tunnel lining segment, comparing with other two conventional segment types.
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  • Akira TATEISHI, Takashi NISHIOKA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 41-46
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The characteristic curve method is often used in analyzing a portion around cutting face by plane strain condition. Generally speaking, the axisymmetric analysis of tunnel is used as preliminary analysis of the characteristic curve method. Axisymmetric analysis, however, is not always suitable for shallow tunnels, because it assumes that the action of the load on tunnels is axisymmetric. Now, in this paper, the authors analyzed the difference of displacement curves of tunnel walls between unlined and lined tunnels with non-axisymmetric analysis, comparing them with the case of axisymmetric analysis.
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  • Sadao KIMURA, Ryo IGARASHI, Atsushi KOIZUMI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 47-54
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The lateral loading tests of the tunnel lining model are carried out in the sand-box in order to evaluate the interaction between the deformation of tunnel lining and the pressure acting upon it.
    Two types of lining model, steel and acryle pipes are used. The former has quite high stiffness and size of 200mm external diameter, 400mm width and 10mm thickness, and the later has flexible property with the same diameter and width of steel and 3mm thickness.
    From the experiments, it is seen that the pressure directly acting upon the lining is changed according to the deformation of the lining itself. The pressure to be changed by the lining deformation, is evaluated by the analytical modd in which the ground is expressed by the elastic springs setted over around the lining.
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  • Masayuki SAITOH, Masaru FURUTA, Minoru YAMAMOTO
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 55-62
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    A qualitative evaluation was made on the safety of tunnel linning, based on the results of measurements made on cross sectional deformation of shield tunnels 10 years or more after their construction. In addition, the study investigated the effects of deformation control of secondary linning on the loads acting on tunnels.
    As a result of these studies, the safety of tunnels has been evaluated from estimated stresses based on the assumption that cross sectional deformation of tunnels was caused by vertical loads prodused as a consequence of the ground in areas adjacent to the tunnels. It has also been verified that the effects of deformation control of secondary linning vary greatly, depending on the response coefficient of ground in ereas adjacent to tunnels.
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  • Fusao MIYAKAWA, Yasufumi KUBO, Susumu MIZUTANI, Kazuhiko YOSHIMURA, Ko ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 63-70
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In neighboring construction by shield tunneling method, it is necessary to grasp the ground deformation and the effect to the existing structures within the execution. In this paper, the method of 3-Dimensional FEM analysis considering the excavating process was suggested first.In this analysis, shield machine, segments and back-filling material are modeled and tunnel face pressure and backfill grouting pressure are considered as load conditions. Secondly, by way of the shield tunnels by super neighboring constriction, the FEM analysis was carried out and compared with the result of the measurements.
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  • Tamotsu YOSHIDA, Hiroshi TANAKA, Morito KUSABUKA, Hiroshi TAKEDA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 71-78
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    We introduced the contact analysis by means of finite element numerical calculation method, as one of an alytical methods for researching contact influence between a shield machine and the surrounding ground. To verify the capability of the method, we performed a preliminary sensitivity study, in which ground behavior due to shield thrusting was simulated, based on the contact analysis. In principle the results of the study were well similar to observed ground behavior.
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  • Yukinori KOYAMA, Mitsuru SHIMIZU, Yutaka SATO, Tatsuya OKAMOTO, Kenjir ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 79-86
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    Back-fill grouting model tests have been carried out and the behavior of back-fill grouting of shield driven tunnel is discussed in this paper. Back-fill grouting of shield driven tunnel is significant for not only surrounding ground but also acting load on tunnel. Ground displacement and acting pressure on the tunnel model were measured during back-fill grouting. Some durability tests for grout material have also been done. The differences of the injection pressure and stiffness of surrounding ground varied the acting pressure on the tunnel model and ground displacement.
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  • Toshimitsu UENO, Yukio YAMASHITA, Kiyoshi SAITO
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 87-92
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    Polymer Shield Tunneling Method is developed for the purpose of excavating the ground where chemical form injection shield method is not able to carry out and for transporting the muck with pumping. This method is improving the fluidity and resistance for permeability of the mixed soil by means of the super absorbent polymer injection materials.
    The outline of this technique and the fundamental properties of injection materials are explained in this paper, and then reported on the results of laboratory test in order to make a comparison between these materials and slurry.
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  • Masaru FURUTA, Fumio NAGASIMA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 93-100
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    For the purpose of analyzing vibrations induced by the running of subway railcars, a time history response analysis was made on shield tunnel-ground system modeled by the finite element method. When the results of this analysis were compared with those obtained by measurement, some differences were noted in spectrum, but the differences were only about 3 decibels in vibration level.
    As a result of a study made on the effects on the ground in areas adjacent to tunnels using this analytic method, it was seen that vibration acceleration levels of tunnel structures in alluvial ground tended to increase by several decibels, compared with those in diluvial ground, but, conversely, it was seen that ground surface vibration tended to decrease by several decibels.
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  • Kazunobu SHIMURA, Yoshiharu KIRITANI, Norio MITANI, Kazunari KAWAI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 101-108
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The paper introduced the newly developed cutter bits with shock resistance and abrasion resistance.
    Cemented carbide tip which has high hardness with high transverse rupture strength is used as a part of the cutter bits to improve durability. Shape of tip, embed manner and weld manner of tip-shank is also studied as well as tip material itself so as to improve the shock resistance. Data analysis from site explicates sufficient shock resistance and abrasion resistance.
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  • Makoto KITO, Mamoru MINEMOTO, Yuzo KAJIWARA, Sigeru MATUOKA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 109-116
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    With steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), it was seen that the sectional force capacity becomes larger than that of plain concrete, and that the force capacity differs depending on factors such as the shape and content of steel fibers, because the tensile stress is transmitted throuh the steel fibers intersecting the crack surface even after cracking has developed.
    However there are almost no methods to calculate the sectional force capacity, with consideration of the tensile stress transmitted through the steel fibers, and there are few examples of applying steel fiber reinforced concrete to structural members.
    Therefore in this paper a method to calculate the sectional force capacity in steel fiber reinforced concrete is proposed based on fracture mechanics.
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  • Yukinori KOYAMA, Mitsuru SHIMIZU, Shun-ichi IHARA, Hidefumi OHHARA, Hi ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 117-124
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The multi circular face shield (MFS) tunneling method had been developed for reasonable construction of underground space. To make dear interaction between ground and MFS, a series of model test has been conducted using a 1/10 scal model of shield tunnel with tri-circular section, and also a series of analsys on the interaction for circular shield tunnel and MFS has been carried out to get basic data on earth pressure acting on. This study clarified some characteristics on behabiour of shield tunnel including MFS, particularly complicated earth pressure.
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  • Yoshiji MATSUMOTO, Yukinori KOYAMA, Noriyuki OKANO, Shyun-ichi IHARA, ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 125-132
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    Recently, triple-face shield tunneling method is receiving much attention, because it can construct a tunnel in a short period without any auxiliary method such as chemical grouting, etc. In this method, temporary columns are installed between permanent columns. After supporting girders are in place, the temporary columns are removed.
    In this paper, we discuss about the behavior of a test tunnel model and three-dimensional FEM simulation analysis in the process of the temporary columns' removal. The tunnel model pipe, columns and media to be analyzed were simulated by shell, beam and solid elements, respectively in FEM package “ABAQUS”.
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  • Mitsutaka SUGIMOTO, Mutsuo SAIGUCHI, Ysunori KOSUGI, Nobuhiro TAKAHASH ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 133-138
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Model tests on MF Shield by using MF shield model and circular one without cutting and muching function were carried out, assuming the excentric state of operation. Based on the relative comparison of both models, the characteristics, such as, acting load on shield and ground behavior of MF shield driven method have been discussed. As results, 1) Murayama's theory can be applied to MF shield at active state and 2) Index of MF on axial force reaches 1.2 at passive state, were made clear.
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  • Mitsutaka SUGIMOTO, Mutsuo SAIGUCHI, Masataka NISHIO, Akihiro DAN
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 139-146
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    Model tests on vertical twin tunnel by MF shield with three faces were carried out by using the shield model with cutting and muching function and the lining model with the function of generating tail void. Here, five factors, i.e., muching ratio, order of construction, vertical distance ratio, relative density of ground and width of sand box were adopted as the experimental factor. Acting pressure on first tunnel lining, and ground behavior due to the excavation of rear tunnel were discussed. As results, the acting pressure versus the above experimental factors were made clear.
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  • Yujing JIANG, Yasuyuki YOKOTA, Tetsuro ESAKI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 147-154
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    It is important to establish the design method for the optimum tunnel support pressure to excavate tunnels in rock mass safely and economically. The elasto-plastic behavior of the rock mass around tunnel due to excavation and the quantitative evaluation of the ground characteristic curve have been carried out theoretically by using the model considered the post-failure behavior after the peak strength. As a result, it is cleared that there exists a minimum point on the ground characteristic curve. The aim of this study is to present a approach and the corresponding charts, based on the proposed method of the ground characteristic curve, to design the optimum support pressure of tunnels.
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  • Hiroyasu OHTSU, Haruo TAKI, Tetsuya ADACHI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 155-162
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    This paper described the stress distribution near face due to tunnel excavation based on the concept of effective stress. The investigation was carried out by means of both axi-symmetric analysis and threedimensional analysis from a viewpoint of effective stress. The investigation made it clear that the applied method considering progress of face was very useful to predict reasonable geomechanical behavior near face during excavation. Finally, we proposed the effective measures to stabilize face and tunnels based on the numerical analysis results.
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  • Masahiro NAKATA, Nobuo SANO, Toshihiro ASAKURA, Fujio OMATA, Kazuyuki ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 163-170
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study by experiments and numerical analyses of deformations of the tunnel linings is being made for the establishment of the method of soundness evaluation of the tunnel linings.
    A tunnel lining model test device, a section 1/30 model of a double-track railway by which the correlative effect of the ground and the lining can be examined, was made and experiments on the development of deformations to the linings have been carried out. The deformation behavior of the lining was predicted on one of the basic specimen by four (4) types of analyses (i. e. frame analysis, FEM analysis, composite structure analysis and discontinuous deformation analysis).
    The applicability of the numerical analyses to the actual design for the reinforcement of deformed tunnel linings has been shown through comparison and examination of the results of the experiments and analysis.
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  • Toshihiro ASAKURA, Toyohiro ANDO, Masahiro NAKATA, Nobuo SANO, Kazuyuk ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 171-178
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    In an effort to establish a standard to evaluate the soundness of deformed tunnel lining, studies have been conducted using model experiments with analysis. For the purpos of modeling, we developed test units by which we can analyze the interaction between ground and lining in both two-and three-dimensional experiments. Based on experiments and subsequent analysis, the following conclusions have been drawn. 1) The effect of inner reinforcement applied to tensile strain area of lining is remarkable. 2) Brittle failure follows stress concentration at the ends of inner reinforcement when it is applied to narrow area. Research results will be implemented in “Design Manual of Countermeasures for Deformed Tunnel”.
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  • Kazuhiro OKA, Shohhei KAWAKUBO, Ken-ichi HIRASHIMA, Kiyokazu KIMURA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 179-186
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    This paper presents a method which determines the elastic properties of anisotropic rock masses by interpreting the response of the various loading against the inner-surface of tunnel. Recently, the evaluation of rock mass properties has been tried to use the displacement data by gripper loads at TBM tunnelling. This method can be applied for their data. In the first, the mathematical formulation is given, and then the numerical calculations are presented for several loading conditions.
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  • Yukinori KOYAMA, Yoshio MATSUMOTO, Toshiharu INAGHAKI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 187-192
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    Recently in Japan, development and research actions of shield tunneling method are launched very vigorously in any phase. These actions consist of a new joints system development adapted for automatically segments assemble, manufacturing multi-face shield machine with none unicirculer shaped cutter-face and so on. They affect to not only rationalization of construction method but also design method. This paper describes influences of design and construction conditions to joint's spring model constants in beam-spring design model of shield segment based on loading tests of segments.
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  • Yutaka KASHIMA, Norio KONDOH, Tsutomu TOMIZAWA, Hirohide HASHIMOTO, Ma ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 193-198
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The Tied Arch Segment is a rational segment rectangular or oval in cross-sectional shape fitted with tie bars to reduce the bending moment that occurs in the members.
    We fabricated a working segment (4.2m×3.1m×0.15m) and subjected it to a ring load test. As a result, it was found that the segment as a ring had sufficient strength. It was also found from measurement of displacement of the segment and strain in the reinforcement and tie bars that the segment could be designed by the beam-spring model design method.
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  • Yukio YAMADA, Kenji NAGATA, Kunio YAMANAKA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 199-204
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    We developed “Cotter and Quick-joint” for shield tunnel segments. Cotter joints connecting circumference segments achieves stable fastening capacity, high rigidits and accuracy while Quick-joints connecting formed rings will be tightened gradually by shield trust jack force and will achieve high stability and water tightness.
    In order to verify such advatage, the Cotter and Quick-joint was applied to an actual power tunnel project and strains on quibk-joints and longitudinal strain on steel segments were monitored for two months. The result was satisfactory amd the detail is described in this report.
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  • Hirotomo MURAKAMI, Hiroki SOMEYA, Youichi SANO, Akira SANO
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 205-210
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    In recent We construct shield tunnels at deep diaphragm more and more. At deep diaphragm, the axial force is exceled in the bending morment. Concrete segment is more effective than steel segment against the axial force. But it is difficult to construct concrete segment at deep diaphragm.
    We have developed STEEL SEGMENT WITH PRE-FILLED CONCRETE. This segment is Steel Segment which is pre-filled with concrete at the factory.
    In this paper, we present the result of several loading tests and consider its strength character. And we suggest the rational design for it.
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  • Yoshiji MATSUMOTO, Yukinori KOYAMA, Mitsuru SHIMIZU, Hiroki KOBAYASHI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 211-216
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    In such cases of closely adjacent tunnels being bored one after another, the preceding tunnel is ill-affected by the one to be bored later. The existing standard specification, however, contains only a few statements about any precise assessment of the possible tunnel behaviors in the field, when tunnels are bored in close to proximity to one to another. This paper tries examinations about the effect of the adjacent tunnels bored, using the design models including frame models, frame models equipment with ground-spring reacting in proportion to lining displacement, and finite element models based on the field measurements.
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  • Shigehito KOBAYASHI, Morihiro KODAMA, Takashi SUGITO, Hiroshi TANAKA, ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 217-222
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The authors designed tunnel lining segments for a sharply curved shield tunnel in 15 meters radius of the curve in consideration of structural stability in the longitudinal direction of a tunnel during sharply curved tunnel construction. To supervise safety construction, in-situ measurements of the segments were carried out at the curved portion and detailed lining behavior well corresponded with the construction manner was obtained.
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  • Yoshihiko URASAWA, Hiromasa KUWABARA, Kunio UMEZAKI, Takenori KATAGIRI ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 223-228
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The behavior of the tunnel lining under grouting pressure has not been clearly understood yet. Therefore, in this work, we measured stress resultants of a tunnel lining while injecting the grout into the sand layer around it. According to the results of this, several meaningful indication was obtained as follows. In case of injection from a hole for grouting, the bending moment predominated in the short term behavior. Contrary to this, in the long term, the axial compressive force became prominent, when we had injected around the tunnel uniformly. Furthermore, when we injected the grout only one side of the tunnel, the axial tensile force as well as the bending moment grew substantially.
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  • Noboru SHIKIBU, Satoshi TAKAHASHI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 229-234
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    This shield is of slurry type to be used for excavation of the double-track shield tunnel of 9.5m dia. and 858m length. Under the moat, it diagonally crosses over 155m right under the existing subway tunnel with an overburden of 3.75m.
    Therefore, we have executed prediction of influences on the existing subway tunnel prior to excavation. Under construction, we measured the behaviors of the subway tunnel.
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  • Yoshihiko URASAWA, Sachio OHTUKA, Masahiro YOSHIMOTO, Masaaki ABE
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 235-240
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The shield tunnel constructed in Ichikawa city was suffered with many cracks especially on the K-segments. To find out the reason of this, first we investigated a lot of past constraction data in similar soft silt layer. Then, we examined several countermeasures to prevent from the crack and maintain the setting-up quality. As a result, we finally found that the cracks were due to the vertical contact of the segments with the machine tail, and this phenomenon tended to happen when a machine excavated along a vertical slope.The estimated vertical force caused by this contact was around 100tf, which we should appropriately consider into the segment designing.
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  • Noriaki MAEDA, Katsuyuki NAMIKI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 241-244
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    This paper reports on the results of the field measurements of surface settlement and ground displacement in connection with passage of the vertical oval sectional shield machine from the flexible section shield tunneling method. The method enables tunnels of various sectional forms, such as oval, ovoid, arched, and rectangular, to be constructed.
    The maximum movement in the ground was 14mm and significant movement was limited to the area directly above the shield, just as occurs with the circular section tunneling method.
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  • Ikuo FUJIKI, Makoto NAKAJIMA, Tsutomu OTSUKA, Akihiro KOSAKA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 245-250
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Observation of earthquake response of subway tunnels has been carried out by Teito Rapid Transit Authority since 1976. By some analyses using the accumulated records, the following facts are found. 1) The motion of the surrounding soil affects strongly the behavior of subway tunnels. The influence of dynamic characteristics of tunnels is small. 2) The difference between the acceleration of tunnels and that of ground surface varies according to geologies. 3) In shield tunnels, the tangential strain of the diagonally upper part (45 degrees from the crown) is larger than that of the side part, the axial strain of ring joints is larger than that of segments.
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  • Masaaki KIYAMA, Hiroki KADOYA, Yukinori ISHIKAWA, Kazuki MISHIMA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 251-256
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    Osaka Nanko aproach tunnel is going to be constructing on a new reclaimed land. Numerical analysis is conducted about axial stress in tunnel lining and displacement of tunnel caused by differential settlement, earthquake and temperature. In the actual design, flexible joints are set at certain interval to reduce the stress.
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  • Katsuyasu IKUTA, Kishio MATSUMOTO, Shoichi FURUYAMA, Masaaki NISHIZAWA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 257-262
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    This paper reports on the influence analysis and the measurement of underpinnig the viaduct of Sendai station on Tohoku Shinkansen in the construction of the subway which crosses under the viaduct.
    For operating Shinkansen safety, the virtical displacement of the viaduct have been controlled by limiting 3mm. We are measuring the subsidence and the inclination, etc. of the viaduct automatically. And the result of this measurement agrees with the analysis done before construction well. The viaduct does not displace harmfully now. We continue measuring in the construction in the future, and we will feed back the result of measurement to construction.
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  • Teruo TOKUTAKE, Shigeru CHIBA, Masaru ABE, Hirato TAKIWAKI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 263-268
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    There is an increasing demand for safe tunnel construction using the shield tunneling method in urban areas because of construction conditions and other constraints. However, the shield machine cost is so high that the shield tunneling method is not usually used for building short tunnels.
    In this report, we describe some shield machine cost reduction schemes. In these schemes, main parts of machine for the construction of short-distance double-track subway tunnel can be used for the construction of neighboring single-track tunnels after the double-track tunnel has been constructed.
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  • Muneo YOSHIMURA, Masuhiro TANAKA, Toshikazu SATTA, Yasuhiro UEKI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 269-274
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The mechanical shield docking is a system where a cutter face of one shield machine is fit into skin plate of another shield machine of which cutter face is gone back. The cut off of water is performed with two seals which are tube seal and sand seal. Test construction of the mechanical shield docking was conducted at the arrival shaft of Yazawagawa shield project for Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Sewerage.
    From the test results, it was found that the amount of water leakage was less than 2.5l/min and this mechanical shield docking showed a good performance.
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  • Yoshihiko URASAWA, Hiromasa KUWABARA, Tomoyuki YAMASHITA, Masakatsu IS ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 275-280
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    In Narita sand layer, direct underground docking of two shield machines was performed using partitive docking hoods. Since the ground is liquescent, chemical grouting was necessary as a auxilliary watertight measure to prevent inflow of sand and grand water at the openings between machine and partitive docking hoods. Newly developed evaluation method using the Elastic Finite Element Analysis was applied, in order to estimate the minimum chemical grouting area. Thereafter, grouting and following direct docking was executed, though inflow of grand water was observed. Thus, the performance of this evaluation method as well as the critical watertight devices previously equipped with the docking shield machines should be thoroughly assessed, as indicated in this paper.
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  • Tomoyasu ISHIKAWA, Masatoshi NAKAHARA, Kiwamu TAKIZAWA, Tetushi SONODA ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 281-286
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    The construction period was shortened 4 months by using a newly developed construction methd.
    The method using novel materials for diaphram walls was applied for a departure shaft of the shield driven tunnel. The method did not require soil improvement works for the departure of the shield machine because the machine could cut the shaft walls with its rotating cutters.
    Mud-pressurized shield machine (φ=4, 180mm) departed from 31m under the ground with 2kgf/cm2 water pressure. The ground consists of diluvial gravel and silt.
    The execution was successfully completed within 2, 500 minutes with a driving speed of 0.5mm/min.
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  • Yoshihiko URASAWA, Sachio OHTSUKA, Tsunao FUJII, Hiromitsu KIDA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 287-292
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
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    Complemental concrete lining is ofen required to maintain sufficient durability of a shield tunnel in high underground water pressure. However, in case of a long tunnel, it is quite difficult to achieve water-proof ability and pumpability of concrete simultaneously, because W/C ratio, which greatly affects pumpability, should be restrained small. To retain these two controversial functions, we executed several lining tests, changing the combination of concrete ingredients, and examining the workability as well as the looking of lining surface. As a result, we succeeded to select the best combination and completed the following regular lining without any visible defects.
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  • Tetushi SONODA, Hiroshi TANIGUCHI, Tsutomu HAGIWARA, Kiyoshi YAMAGAMI, ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 293-298
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Labor saving and high-speed of the execution in the ECL system have been tried by using H-shaped steel frames and superplasticized concrete in it. This concrete is superior in flow ability (slump-flow: 65±5cm) and compressive strength (σ1≥100kgf/cm2, σ28=550-800 kgf/cm2). H-shaped steel frame is high-rigidity structure and easy to built-up for using the mechanical joint. The Verification test of this method had been implemented using a real shield tunnel machine (φ2480mm). The situation of execution was considered similar to ordinary shield tunnel one, the constructed lining was stable structure, and ground displacement by construction of lining were very little.
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  • Minoru IMAI, Hiroshi KAZAMA, Husao KAWAKAMI, Yasuhiko SHIGETA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 299-304
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of concrete placing experiment was carried out to confirm performance of New Extruded Concrete Lining Method, which allows construction of in-situ lining concrete in the unsolidied ground under high groundwater pressure. Experiment has been performed to hold concrete pressure at 0.5-1.0 kgf/cm2over the groundwater pressure. Materials for ground is three kind of glassbeads, sands, crushed stone. Groundwater pressures are 2 and 3 kgf/cm2.
    Test results revealed proper performance and quality on (1) the performance of the extrusion system to hold concrete pressure, (2) performance of control system, (3) the state of boundary surface between ground and concrete, (4) quality of concrete.
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  • Akio FUKUSHIMA, Yukinori KOYAMA, Tetsushi SONODA, Shigeki SADAKA, Koji ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 305-310
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, the application of multi-circular face shield method to underground stations is studied in case of construction of underground railways. In this paper, the experiment and 3-dimensional FEM analysis were carried out on the specific segment to be applied to multi-circular face shield. As a result, it was clear that this specific segment had enough strength and it was able to apply to this tunnel lining.
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  • Hajime TAKASAKI, Toshimitsu UEBAYASHI, Tatsurou TAMAI, Yoshiyuki SHIMI ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 311-316
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Osaka Municipal Subway Line No.7 Osaka Business Park Station is to be constructed by a slurry type triple multiface shield machine. In order to make a basic operational manual of the machine, two model tests have been conducted to investigate the moving characteristics of the machine. This paper presents a driving control method and the outline of two model tests.
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  • Keisuke KOJIMA, Toshihisa ADACHI, Kho KIMURA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 317-322
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Described is a numerical procedure to back-analyze the initial state of the ground based on the monitored displacements during tunnel excavation. The unknown stress parameters to be estimated are the generalized overburden pressure, the coefficient of earth pressure at rest, the unit weight and the direction of principal stress. Firstly, the proposed procedure is verified with hypothetical case studies. Subsequently, the procedure is applied to model tests and actual case studies and comparisons are made with observed initial stress.
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  • Hideto Mashimo, Akira Inokuma
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 323-328
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to excavate a tunnel in safety, it is important to keep the tunnel face stable. But now there are no criteria to evaluate the stability of the tunnel face easily, so some accidents of the tunnel face collapse have happened owing to the lack of the countermeasures for the tunnel face collapse.
    In this paper, model tests on unsaturated sand were carried to investigate the ground condition when the tunnel face collapse happens and the results of the model tests were analyzed by the three-dimensional stability analysis. From the model tests and the analysis, the author could obtain a criterion to evaluate the face stability.
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  • Shozi SAKURAI, Sadao NOTI, Takesi KATABAMI, Sinzi MIYAO
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 329-334
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Model, perspective drawings and sketches commonly used for studying design are highly time consuming and relatively unsuccessful in assessing effects designs had.
    Therefore, an alternative method allowing full evaluation of the environment itseffects including safety has developed.
    Adopting computer graphics provides virtual reality allowing the study of the design from different angles gaining artificial experience of driving through the tunnels.
    This feature enables:
    1. Design fault recognition and presentation in visual form.
    2. Design quality improvement, maintenance of certain quality level.
    3. Prompt design agreement by concerned parties (client, contractor, local inhabitants)
    Computer graphics associated simulation is believed to contribute to structuredesign with regards to quantity and quality.
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  • Yutaka NASHIMOTO, Ikuhisa KATO, Mikio MATUI, Sadahiko TAKAMORI, Toru K ...
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 335-340
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    If the area of an excavation section can be minimized after the design requirements have been satisfied, economic efficiency and safety can be greatly enhanced. Viewed in this light, “the minimum excavation design method” has been proposed. This method, however, was confronted with a difficult problem that the prediction of the minimum excavation section is impossible in the case of non-axisymmetric tunnels. To solve this problem, an execution system for the FEM minimum excavation design method that enables the alteration of the sectional geometry, taking into account the design requirements and obtained FEM analytical data, has been developed. The serviceability of the system was also examined.
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  • Shunsuke SAKURAI, Shinichi AKUTAGAWA, Miki YAMADA, Masato SHINJI
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 341-346
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method is proposed for the optimization of a configuration of displacementt measurement for back analysis in an 3-dimensional linear elastic problem involving tunnel excavation. A reliable estimation of a strain field obtained by back analysis depends on the quality of displacement measurements. Because displacement measurements must be done within a limited budget, an engineer needs to know the most effective and economical way of installing the measurement instruments such that the in-situ stresses are back-calculated to the highest accuracy that the instrumentation could achieve in a given condition. A simple optimization scheme proposed here enables the design of effective positioning of instruments in a general 3-dimensioinal problem which is illustrated by some examples in this manuscript.
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  • Takashi ITOH, Takashi NISHIOKA
    1994 Volume 4 Pages 347-352
    Published: November 16, 1994
    Released: June 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A. A. Griffith is the only one that clarified physical mechanism of brittle failure. In this paper, the authors suggest new application of his yeild condition for reason that Griffith's theory is not adapted to rock. The plastic zone produced in the excavation of tunnel by using yield conditions is discussed in consideration of brittleness. The authors got the following conclusions.: 1) Plastic zone decreaces with increasing brittleness or increasing tensile strength. 2) Rock failure machanism can be estimated by failure parameter. 3) Rock burst growing index is suitable for studying rock burst. 4) The rock burst is not explained only by strain energy. 5) The peaks of plastic zone are not the very same as portions of rock burst.
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