The participation percentages of disabled population in Japan are 20-40% in physically challenged, 40-50% in mentally deficit population. Even though the participation percentage of disabled population is increasing, there is not in the circumstance that any disabled population can be able to participate in sports easily. The Issues on Disabled Sports and the Related Law in Japan are; 1. The issues with promoting sports for disabled population and, related policies and laws. 2. The issue of the fairness in disability and events 3. The issues of sports for disabled and the doping. 4. The arbitration cases by the Japan Sports Arbitration Agency on sports for disabled athletes. There are still a lot of issues that need to be solved in sports for disabled, and moreover, we are facing to new issues. There is the needs of research and impulsion of the policies for the promotion in sports for disabled athletes.
In speed skating, it is important for the skater to perform and maintain a steady one-leg standing posture on a thin edge while generating a strong propulsive force. However, there are no reports that have examined the relevance of skating performance and balance performance during one-leg standing in speed skaters. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between balance performances during one-leg standing as a simulation of the skating posture in junior speed skaters, and to formulate an indicator for on-land training. A total of 37 subjects, comprising 16 junior elite and 21 junior non-elite speed skaters volunteered to participate in this study. The method for analyzing their balance performance during one-leg standing posture involved analyzing the trajectory length (LNG), the peak value for center of gravity fluctuations (REC-A), and the area where fluctuations in the center of gravity were concentrated (SD-A) during a simulation of straight and curve skating posture. The results show that the elite group demonstrated a lower value compared with the non-elite group in all of the factors analyzed. The results suggested that it was possible to relate the performance of one-leg standing during the simulated posture to their skating performance. Therefore, it is possible to compare the measurements during their one-leg standing performance as a simulation of their speed skating posture to their competitive skating performance. It may be useful to introduce the maintenance of one-leg standing during simulation of the skating posture as a qualitative on-land training to improve the performance of speed skaters.
This study aimed 1) to construct an Empowerment Scale for the Elderly (ESE) in health promotion; and 2) to examine its validity and reliability. Empowerment for the elderly was defined as a concept consisting of three sub-constructs: 1) the perception of self-potential competence, 2) the recognized issues with interaction, and 3) an intention for positive action. The study consisted of three phases. In the 1st phase, the focus-group interview data of 20 old persons who participated in an exercise-oriented health promotion program for the elderly were analyzed by a content analysis to develop question items of the scale. The content validity and the face validity of the scale were examined with public health nurses who supported the health promotion activities. In the 2nd phase, a provisional set of 23 items were selected by an exploratory factor analysis on another group of subjects (n=83). The 3rd phase tested the validity and the reliability of the scale based on the data of 383 old persons (aged 65-92 years) who participated in another health promotion program for the elderly in 29 small communities. The results are as follows. 1) The exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation indicated three factors of the scale. As a result, this scale consisted of 12 items classified into 3 subscales. 2) The covariance structure analysis yielded a sufficient degree of fitness of the second-order structural equation model (χ2/df=2.234, GFI=0.942, AGFI=0.910, RMSEA=0.064). The factor structure of the scale generally agreed with Zimmerman’s concept of psychological empowerment, and hence the scale appears to have good construct validity. 3) The construct validity was supported by significant correlation between ESE and three scales (General self-efficacy scale, Helping effects scale, and Coping scale), with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.74 to 0.22. 4) The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for ESE and its three subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.83, indicating sufficient reliability of the scale. The average of test-retest correlation coefficients was 0.71, which is an acceptable level of stability. These results indicate that ESE is valid and reliable. This scale provides a useful tool for the evaluation of health promotion programs and nursing interventions for the elderly.
In 2002, many zinc deficient patients visited our clinic in Kitamimaki (KI) Village, a rural area in Nagano prefecture. To understand why so many zinc deficiencies were found in the area, we devised a survey in 2003 (called Kitamimaki study) to determine the serum zinc (Zn) level of the residents. We found that the Zn level (75.8μg/dL) of the residents in Kitamimaki was 10μg/dL lower than in healthy Japanese people, though the reason for this was not clear. In 2004, Kitamimaki Village (KI) and the neighboring Tobu Town merged to become a larger city, called Tomi City. Tomi City is divided into five areas, two of which are rural (the KI and NE areas) and three of which are urban (the TA, KA and SH areas). This merger gave us the chance to survey more widely than we had in 2003. From July through October 2005, we conducted this study (called Tomi study) at the annual community-wide health examination for the city’s residents, In the study, we measured the Zn levels of 1773 participants, looking for differences in Zn levels in rural and urban residents, trying to ascertain whether Zn levels were lower in rural areas than in urban areas, and trying to understand why (or why not) this might occur. Various studies indicate that Zn levels are affected by many factors, including age, gender, and the time of day samples are taken. In comparing the mean Zn levels and the appearance rates of loweved Zn level (under the lower limit of the standard zinc level - <65μg/dL) among the residents of each of the fire areas, we attempted to account for each of these factors, We compared the mean age and male/female ratio of each area, and used only the samples of 1017 participants whose blood was taken in the morning. The latter step was necessary because we needed to ensure that the conditions for subjects in each area matched those of subjects in other areas. In four of the five areas studied, there had been no previous interventions by local health authorities to improve Zn levels of the people residing there. Only for the residents of Kitamimaki, the subjects of our 2003 study, there had been such interventions. During the years between the Kitamimaki and Tomi studies, we tried various approaches to improve Zn levels in the Kitamimaki population, and consistently examined the efficacy of the efforts. Because of this, we did not compare the data from Kitamimaki with that of the other areas in the Tomi study. [RESULTS and CONCLUSION] 1) Zn levels of males tended to be higher than those of females, and the levels also tended to be lower as individuals age. 2) The rate at which subjects’ Zn levels were under 65μg/dL was significantly higher (14.5%) in rural NE area than in urban TA and KA areas (8.0% and 7.5% respectively). 3) The mean Zn level (75.6μg/dL) of the residents in rural NE was significantly lower than those in the urban TA and KA areas (78.3 and 77.8μg/dL respectively). Even in urban areas, however, the mean Zn levels of the residents were lower than the mean level (86.9μg/dL) of healthy Japanese adults. 4) The low Zn level (75.8μg/dL) of KI residents in 2003, almost the same level (75.6μg/dL) of NE rural residents in Tomi study, improved after two-years of educational efforts. Campaigns including ‘Let’s eat a few more vegetables,’ ‘Take more soybean products,’ and ‘Lectures on zinc-rich foods’ helped raise Kitamimaki Zn levels. We must continue to investigate the reasons why Zn levels of Tomi City residents, especially rural ones, are lower than elsewhere in Japan. We must pay more attention to interrelated, complex factors such as the amount of zinc in food, local soil composition, food additives, medicines, eating habits, and other factors affecting Zn levels in local populations.
This study explored the experience of community-dwelling, elderly participants who took part in a community exercise program for over five years. A focus group was conducted using ten of the participants. Data was gathered through focus-group discussion and analyzed using content analysis techniques. The data yielded four categories of emphasis, including the participants' approaches to participation and expectations from the program, feelings of happiness in the relationships established during the exercise sessions, determination and reconstruction of meaningful participation, and confidence in the effects resulting from continuous exercise. These four categories covered the entire phase of the process from the time of initiation of participation in the community exercise program through the point at which they achieved confidence in the beneficial effects of continuous exercise. If elderly individuals are able to find satisfaction in their physical achievements as well as interpersonal relationships resulting from a community exercise program they will be more likely to continue an individualized program.
The purpose of this study was to examine the physical performance of elderly participants enrolled in an exercise program for several years. Subjects consisted of 36 community elders who participated in an exercise program for five years or more (intervention group), 12 community elders who dropped out of the exercise program after less than five years (drop-out group), and 36 cultural activity participants who were age-matched with the intervention group (control group). Subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their physical condition, health related quality of life (SF-8), changes in health status, life events, and exercise environment. Furthermore, participants were evaluated on 10meter-walking time, step length, tandem gait, and grip test to measure physical function. There were no significant differences with regard to age or gender among the three groups. The step length of the intervention group was longer compared to the control group (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in any of the other mobility tests among the 3 groups. There was also no significant difference in the SF-8 score among the 3 groups; however, the intervention group was higher on social function compared to the control group (p<0.05). The drop-out group had many respondents on questions regarding history of hospitalizations, decrease opportunity for going out, and decline in oral functions. Elders who regularly participated in community activity could keep their physical function. On the other hand, it is necessary to support drop-out group as they had some risks for dependence.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of participants' physical and mental functions after conducting comprehensive health education for community-dwelling people at Tokyo University of Agriculture. Seven community-dwelling people applied to participate in the fall-prevention course. We had lectures and exercise instructions once a week (90 min) for 6 weeks. Participants' fall-preventive abilities and mental moods were measured by the Good Walker's Index (Kenkyakudo)® and POMS, respectively. Each outcome at the end of the intervention was compared to the baseline level. The items which improved significantly compared to the baseline were 10-m walking speed (p<0.01) in Good Walker's Index (Kenkyakudo)® and fatigue (p<0.05) in POMS. In conclusion, even the healthy elderly without any fall experience might improve their physical and mental functions after lectures and exercise instructions once a week (90 min) for 6 weeks.
The purpose of this article is to report on a case of group exercise instructor training offered by the Department of Recreational Sports at Oregon State University. It has been held twice a year for more than ten years at their on-campus fitness facility, which provides various kinds of group exercise classes such as step aerobics, kickboxing, circuit training, indoor cycling, and so on. In fall 2005, 14 participants took 40 hour of training including basic exercise science, teaching techniques, choreography, and safety and injury prevention. As for teaching techniques, each participant chose one of the group exercise programs at the beginning and learned the skills for it. The final test consisted of written and practical examinations, and those who met the requirement were given the opportunity to do co-teaching with an experienced instructor to improve their teaching skills. After this training course, participants needed about three more months to complete the hands-on training.