Similar to many countries worldwide, the number of cases and severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection increased in Japan. Therefore, universities implemented remote learning to prevent the spread of infection. Based on the findings of Nishida et al. (2021), the present study examined the perceived benefits and physical activities of “On-Demand (OD) format” PE practical courses. Additionally, we focused on the stages of exercise behavior change contributing to the learning outcomes of OD format PE courses. A web-based survey was conducted on items such as the Perceived Benefits Scale in university First-Year PE classes (PBS-FYPE; Nishida et al., 2016), the Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Version (IPAQ-SV; Murase et al., 2002), and the stages of exercise behavior change (Oka, 2003) among university students who took general PE courses in the spring semester of 2020. Based on the analysis of 2,687 participants, it was found that the scores of the PBS-FYPE were significantly lower in the OD format PE than in the Real Time (RT) format PE practical courses, except for “regular lifestyles.” Moreover, all physical activity indices were consistently lower in the OD format PE than in the RT format PE practical courses. Further, there was a significant difference in PBS-FYPE scores between the Precontemplation and Contemplation stages and the men’s Preparation, Action, and Maintenance stages. These scores were higher in the later stages of exercise behavior change. Furthermore, the total amount of physical activity was significantly higher in the Preparation stage than in the Precontemplation and Contemplation stages, and in the Action stage than in the Preparation stage, for both men and women. Finally, the differences in learning outcomes according to the stage of exercise behavior change were discussed, and the limitations of this study and future issues were discussed. These results suggested an effective procedure for improving students’ low learning outcomes in OD format PE practical courses.
Self-regulated learning strategies (SRLS), along with motivation, are important elements in fostering active learning. This study aims to elucidate whether physical education classes in universities in the context of liberal education, which introduce group-based Action Socialization Experience (ASE), can be an opportunity to promote the use of SRLS and which SRLS should be used. Toward this end, we first reviewed the theory of self-regulated learning and found that self-regulated learning is a cyclical process that consists of three phases: forethought, performance, and self-reflection. Moreover, SRLS and motivation are related to each phase. Subsequently, we examined whether the use of SRLS can be promoted in the context of liberal education, which introduces ASE. ASE is an activity in which a group of people cooperate to solve problems that cannot be solved by one person. It is effective in developing social skills and decision-making and problem-solving abilities. The results suggest that ASE, which is conducted in six steps, displays a high affinity with the cyclical phase model of self-regulated learning. Furthermore, the SRLS that are assumed to be used from STEP1, “recognition and acceptance of the problem,” to STEP3, “planning of problem-solving,” are the SRLS of goal setting and strategic planning. In STEP 4, “Trial,” and STEP 5, “Problem Solving,” the SRLS are self-instruction, imagery, time management, help seeking, metacognitive monitoring, and self-motivation. In STEP 6, “Reflection,” the SRLS are self-evaluation and adaptive decisions. Thus, university physical education class in the context of liberal education can be an optimal venue for promoting the use of SRLS by providing opportunities to use many SRLS and reflect on the effectiveness of their use. Promoting the use of SRLS through university physical education in the context of liberal education will demonstrate the significance and value of university physical education for undergraduate students as a subject that fosters active learning.
It has been reported that physical education for liberal arts enhances the fundamental competencies of working persons (FCWP) by effective implementation of cooperative and collaborative learning. Previous studies have reported that the effectiveness of cooperative and collaborative learning is largely dependent on the personality of learners. However, the relation between personality and FCWP has yet to be clarified. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to amass data on the relation between the Big Five personality traits test and the FCWP scores. Participants included 359 students in the physical education class for liberal arts. First, the correlation between scores of the Big Five personality traits and those of the 12 skill factors of FCWP was confirmed. Significant correlation was found between the personality factor scores for “extraversion” “conscientiousness” “intellectual curiosity” and all the skill factors of FCWP as well as “agreeableness” and 10 skill factors of FCWP (excluding problem-finding ability and planning ability). Subsequently, in order to examine the influence of the Big Five personality traits on the FCWP scores, a multiple regression analysis was conducted, with the scores of three competencies (action, thinking, and teamwork) as the dependent variable and the personality scores as the independent variable. The results revealed that the scores of Big Five personality traits moderately predicted each competency (R2 = .27 to .37). In addition, there were significant positive effects of extraversion, intellectual curiosity, and in particular, conscientiousness on “action”. Furthermore, there were significant positive effects of conscientiousness, extraversion, and in particular, intellectual curiosity on “thinking”. There were also significant positive effects of conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and intellectual curiosity on “teamwork”. Finally, there were significant negative effects of neuroticism on “action” and “thinking.” These results suggest that there is a relationship between the Big Five personality traits and FCWP. In the future, it is necessary to verify a relationship between the personality traits and educational effect of physical education for liberal arts.
The Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games were scheduled to be held in 2020; however, COVID-19 forced their postponement. This trend continues today; whereas numerous schools are offering remote classes, many others are postponing or canceling physical education classes. This study aimed to investigate whether remote classes in physical education for university students, particularly new students, influence their mood. In particular, we focused on the differences in emotional changes in students that like or dislike exercise. All classes covered in this study were conducted remotely. The 378 survey participants were classified into two groups: the intervention group, in which participants attended a physical education class (n=198, 18.8±1.2 years), and the control, in which participants attended only a classroom lecture (not receiving physical education) (n=180, 18.9±1.1 years). The mood of participants was measured before and after each class using the Mood Check List Short-form 2 (MCLS.2). The content of the class for the intervention group involved stretching exercises. Differences in pulse rates and exercise likes/dislikes were only examined among the intervention group. Statistical analysis included performing a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance on changes in each factor and a multiple comparison test when significant interactions were observed. The intervention group’s pulse rate and positive mood increased significantly after class, whereas their anxiety decreased from the baseline; however, no such changes were observed in the control group. The degree of change in the before- and after-class observations was higher among the participants who disliked exercise than it was in those who liked it. In particular, after-class pulse rates and anxiety levels showed significant differences between those who like exercise and those who do not. However, there was no statistically significant difference in relaxation levels. These findings suggest that under the COVID-19 pandemic, even remote physical education classes are effective for elevating the mood of students who dislike exercise.
It is thought that not only playing sports but also learning about sports from various perspectives plays an important role in a university liberal arts education. However, there are few reports about teaching methods and materials for learning about sports from various perspectives. In this study, we created teaching materials in the form of a sports column that presented badminton from various viewpoints and distributed the column to 217 liberal arts students enrolled in a badminton class. After using the materials in class, the students answered a questionnaire, the results of which allowed us to evaluate the effects of the column on the students’ learning. The results are as follows: (1) 66.3% of the students answered that “The column was useful for playing badminton (skill improvement, etc.) in class”; (2) about 90% of the students answered that learning about badminton “increased” or “somewhat increased”their interest in badminton; (3) 57.0% answered that the column “facilitated” or “somewhat facilitated” interaction among the students; (4) 35.4% answered that “the history of badminton” was the most interesting theme in the column, followed by “studying badminton through motion analysis” (33.3%) and “the overview of badminton” (32.8%), whereas “manga and novels” and “movies and anime” about badminton ranked highly among students with badminton experience as well as science students; and (5) in the free-form answers, many students wrote that “their knowledge about badminton” and “interest in badminton” increased after reading the column. From these results, it was considered that the sports column teaching materials increased the students’ knowledge of and interest in badminton as well as their badminton skills. Our findings suggest that by incorporating these teaching materials into physical education classes at liberal arts universities, even in practical subjects, it is possible to grasp sports from various perspectives, thereby increasing students’ appreciation of sports.
<Purpose> The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of remote physical education classes in college students with regards to the “Fundamental Competencies for Working Persons” initiative developed by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical education classes in college students of this study which is called SLS (Sports Life Skills) aim to improve the “Fundamental Competencies for Working Persons”. <Methods> Due to the influence of COVID-19, we asked students attending online physical education classes to self-evaluate 12 ability parameters about their own “Fundamental Competencies for Working Persons” by using questionnaires conducted at the 5th (Pre-test: the start of practical class) and 15th (Post-test: the end of practical class) classes. The subjects in this study were 188 (1st year undergraduate students: 123, 2nd year undergraduate students: 65, male: 120, Female: 65, unanswered: 3) out of 1598 students attending the online physical education classes, and who responded to both questionnaires. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare each value in Pre-test to in Post-test. <Results and discussion> The main results in this study are as follows. In the 12 competency factors, “Ability to influence” (z = -2.26, p < 0.05), “Ability to detect issues” (z = -2.48, p < 0.05), “Planning skill” (z = -2.62, p < 0.01), “Creativity” (z = -3.99, p < 0.01), “Ability to deliver message” (z = -3.95, p < 0.01), and Ability to listen closely and carefully” (z = -2.49, p < 0.05) were significantly higher in Post-test than in Pre-test. In the three competencies, only “Ability to think through (thinking)” (z = -3.85, p < 0.01) and “Ability to work in a team (teamwork)” (z = -2.25, p < 0.05) were significantly higher in Post-test than in Pre-test. It is suggested that “Ability to influence”, “Ability to detect issues”, “Planning skill”, “Creativity”, “Ability to deliver message”, and “Ability to listen closely and carefully” can be improved through online physical education classes. These results showed the effectiveness of remote physical education classes in improving 12 competency factors for the “Fundamental Competencies for Working Persons”. The results of this study could contribute to effective remote physical education classes during and even after the COVID-19 pandemic. On the other hand, these results suggest the possibility for improvement in many of the competency factors through live (face-to face) physical education classes. Therefore, further research which will focus on how to improve those competencies will be necessary in the future.
There is a strong interest in ‘student-centered’ learning in higher education. Previous research has identified a system for teaching self-preservation skills in the water in university swimming classes, but that research did not aim to design a specific class. The purpose of this study is the design of a university swimming class aimed at strengthening self-preservation skills in the water. This is undeniably the most fundamental prerequisite for any water-related activity. To that end, the following objectives were set: i) understand the characteristics of underwater exercise; ii) improve underwater skills, water-safety knowledge and ability to cope with water-related accidents; iii) understand the dangers of water through exercises and aquatic sports; iv) improve self-preservation skills through active learning; v) evaluate water safety both objectively and subjectively; and vi) improve the skills and knowledge of students to intervene safely and effectively in water-related accidents. To accomplish these goals, tasks were set from the perspectives of knowledge, skills, and ability to cope with water-related accidents. In order to facilitate learning, the lesson was divided in five sections: i) pre-study; ii) practice; iii) skill test; iv) instruction on how to cope with accidents in the water; and v) reflection. During the instruction, tasks, possible hazards and skills to be developed by the students are set in advance. A series of water exercises (e.g. swimming with clothed) and aquatic sports (e.g. water polo, rhythmic swimming) are provided for that purpose. The other sections of the lesson are to help students to understand their own limitations, plan ahead of the practice, evaluate their skills and ultimately improve through a full PDCA cycle. Although there are differences in terms of facilities and number of teaching hours, the swimming lessons designed in this study can be easily adopted in universities to develop and reinforce the self-preservation skills of students in water activities.
There is a broad understanding that the primary benefit of in-person-teaching of university physical education classes develops students’ physical and mental health. However, to adapt to restricted mobility due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most universities had to cancel in-person classes in the spring term (first semester) 2020. While some universities decided to cancel physical education classes, others shifted online. There are concerns about the adverse effects on students’ mental health and social skills during this unusual situation. Subsequently, our university returned to in-person teaching of physical education classes from the autumn term (second semester) 2020. Within this context, in-person teaching is promising for the expected educational benefits of university physical education. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of in-person physical education classes on students’ mental health and social skills. The study recruited 455 students (230 males and 225 females) in our university. A total of 316 students attended in-person physical education classes (PE group), and 139 students did not register for the classes (non-PE group). We administered web-based questionnaires to the participants pre- and post-the 2020 autumn term. The questionnaires consisted of a survey of physical activity opportunities, the WHO-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5), and the Kikuchi’s Scale of Social Skills (KiSS-18). The results revealed the following: (1) The two-way mixed ANOVA results showed that the Time x Group interaction effect was significant for the WHO-5 and KiSS-18. Specifically, the PE group students improved in the WHO-5 score, while students in the non-PE group declined in the KiSS-18 score; (2) Concerning the status of belonging to university athletics club or sports club, the Time x Group interaction effect was significant for the KiSS-18. Expressly, the non-PE group who belong to university athletics club or sports club significantly declined in the KiSS-18 score; (3) The analysis including the type of sport showed no significant Time x Group interaction effect for the WHO-5 and KiSS-18. We concluded that attending in-person physical education classes had a significant positive effect on enhancing their psychological wellbeing and social skills. Notably, attending physical education classes, rather than the type of sport and belonging to a university athletics club or sports club, was one of the most influential factors in promoting and maintaining mental health and social skills.
Purpose: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has changed the lives of many people, and university students are no exception. University students were unable to attend university, let alone participate in other activities. This may have caused a reduction in physical activity and affected psychological well-being. However, though more than one year has passed since COVID-19 became widespread, it is not clear whether the present circumstances as experienced by freshmen university students in 2021 may differ from 2020, the 1st year of the pandemic, even though the pandemic is ongoing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was specifically to investigate whether the number of steps, psychological well-being and sleep status of university freshmen differed between 2020 and 2021. Methods: The number of participants in this study was 161 each for university freshmen from 2020 and 2021. The participants measured their number of steps daily for a week in late April, immediately after enrollment, respectively. To measure the number of steps was used an app on their smartphone. In addition, psychological well-being and sleep status were investigated using a questionnaire on a web. Results: Participants’ average number of steps per week was measured to be 5,874.9 ± 182.3 steps/day (n = 152) in 2021, which was significantly higher than the 2,059.5 ± 194.1 steps/day (n = 135) in 2020. Psychological well-being was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), was significantly better for participants in 2021 (11.1 ± 0.6 points) compared to 2020 (13.5 ± 0.6 points). On the other hand, sleep status was shown to be better in 2020 than in 2021. Conclusion: Since the beginning of 2020, the extraordinary circumstances of COVID-19 has spread, and this pandemic is continuing. However, even with the same COVID-19 status, the number of steps, psychological well-being, and sleep status of university freshmen differed between 2020 and 2021.
Skiing has been traditionally and widely used as a winter intensive class in university physical education. A boom in snowboarding has seen more and more universities incorporating snowboarding intensive classes to meet the needs of students. However, snowboarding has a short history as a sport, and therein as a university physical education sport. In other words, there is negligible research and a lack of books on teaching methods, resulting in insufficient information for this sport at diverse levels. Research on snowboarding instructional practices is urgently needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to design a PCM (Project Cycle Management)-based class as active learning in a snowboarding class, and to analyze the actual content of the course. PCM is a management technique that is mainly used in the field of international cooperation. The subjects of the study were 28 students who chose snowboarding and 5 instructors in an intensive class (4 days) at the T University. Students were divided into five groups according to their skill level and were instructed by one instructor. There were 5 groups in total consisting of two intermediate, one novice, and two beginner groups. Students and instructors were required to write down their daily skill tasks and the content of their instruction in their practical journals. Seven students in the novice group were instructed by the author and participated in the PCM workshop. During the PCM workshop, the students worked with their instructor to create a logic tree (objective tree) that visually organized desired future situations (objectives) and means. The PCM group was compared to the other groups in terms of the students’ awareness of the skill tasks and the instructor’s lesson planning in response to them. Results of the analysis showed that the percentage of agreement between the students’ and instructors’ perceptions of the course content and the percentage of agreement between the students’ awareness of the skill tasks and the instructors’ design of the course content were significantly higher in the novice (PCM) group. This suggested that the PCM workshop was effective in eliminating the gap between the instructor and the students. However, there was no significant difference in the identification of issues by the students. Therefore, there is room for improvement in a) promoting the internalization of knowledge in snowboarding techniques, b) effective and efficient ways of conducting workshops, and c) the use of practice journals.
The purpose of this study was to examine the external validity of physical education in higher education (PEHE) courses based on the ADDIE model offered in previous studies. The subjects were a total of 154 undergraduate students (110 males : 44 females) taking a judo course in three different universities, and three junior faculty members who taught their respective courses. The judo course based on ADDIE model was offered at two universities, and a general judo course as a control was offered at the third university. The students answered a self-evaluation questionnaire on judo skills and teaching methods before and after their courses, and the lecturers were interviewed post-course completion. The self-evaluation questionnaire inquired on 11 judo techniques (eight throwing techniques and three hold techniques). The interviews questioned the lecturers about their outcomes and issues in offering the course. Self-evaluation scores were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test for four universities, including those in the previous study (Kawato, et al., 2022). The results of student’s self-evaluation showed that the scores were significantly higher after than before the courses at all universities. Significant differences between universities were examined using the Steel-Dwass test. The results showed that the scores of the control course were significantly lower in terms of all techniques and teaching methods than those of the ADDIE model based courses. It means that the percentage of students who answered “sometimes or always able to do judo skills and to teach them” of the two intervention courses was higher than the control course and at the same level as the percentage of the previous study. Among the interviews, the lecturer in the control stated that it was not possible to pay attention to the whole course. On the other hand, two lecturers of the intervention courses indicated that they were able to guarantee the learning outcomes through their ingenuity in teaching based on the ADDIE model. The results demonstrated the effectiveness and its external validity of the ADDIE model in the design and implementation of judo courses. The process of lesson design for judo courses based on the ADDIE model provides useful suggestions for FD in PEHE.