Journal of Physical Exercise and Sports Science
Online ISSN : 2435-9912
Print ISSN : 1342-1026
Volume 26 , Issue 2
Showing 1-9 articles out of 9 articles from the selected issue
Original Investigations
  • Michael Annear, Yasuo Shimizu, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 87-101
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    Research background and objectives: The Olympic Games have the potential to inspire increases in physical activity (PA) among host populations, yet such legacies are infrequently reported. While research concerning PA legacies has seldom identified positive outcomes, design and methodological limitations are common. Therefore, this study aimed to identify expert academic consensus concerning the challenges, opportunities and research needs associated with the pursuit of PA legacies to guide sports event planning prior to the Tokyo Olympics. Methods: A two-round, mixed-method Delphi study was undertaken during 2018 following international best-practice guidelines. In total, 27 academics from five regions participated with diverse expertise across sports, PA and Olympic research. Experts were particularly sought from the Asia-Pacific region, including Japan, due to their knowledge of regional issues ahead of the Tokyo Olympics. Results: Consensus (>50% participant agreement) was identified in relation to five themes and six expert-generated statements. Experts showed negative sentiment in relation to Olympic PA legacies, acknowledging only the tangible infrastructure and facility developments and highlighting failures in long-term strategic planning. Looking ahead to future Olympic Games, experts acknowledged the possibility of achieving population increases in PA under the right circumstances. They asserted, however, that such outcomes will rely on government commitments to a long-term legacy plan with defined performance measures, sustainable funding, and stakeholder support. In order to accurately capture the effects of the Olympics on population PA, experts recommended that longitudinal cohort studies need to be initiated with appropriate sub-population representation. Conclusion: Previous Olympic Games have a poor record of achieving PA legacies beyond infrastructure and facility development. A strategic, long-term approach to legacy management is required and research is needed to capture baseline data to inform longitudinal studies of hosting impacts.

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  • Koki Nagata, Takeru Gushiken, Shota Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Suzukawa
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 103-110
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    Executive function is important for maintaining a high quality of life. Exercise is effective for enhancing executive functions, and many children can participate in exercise activities at school sports club events. However, it is still unclear how participation in sports club activities exerts a positive effect on the executive functions of children. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate and compare the executive function of elementary school children participating in sports club activities and non-sports club activities.

    This study included 124 fourth grade students (57 boys and 67 girls) at the targeted elementary school. These children selected club activities independently among the following options: physical play, football, basketball, brass band, computer activities, or none. The Stroop Test, Design Fluency Test, and Trail Making Test (TMT) were used to assess their executive functions. We compared children’s executive functions before and 6 weeks after initiation of the club activities between children who participated in sports activities and those who participated in non-sports club activities using two-way analysis of covariance adjusted for sex.

    Although both the groups showed significant improvement in most tests after 6 weeks, there were no significant “group×time” interactions in any variable. However we confirmed the group effects in the time to complete TMT-A and TMT-B,for those who participated in sports club activities had a better score than those who participated in non-sports club activities (p=0.028, p=0.025).

    Participation in sports club activities for 6 weeks could improve executive functions; however, the impact was not different from that achieved after participation in non-sports club activities. Conversely, because the time to complete TMT-A and TMT-B before and after participation was better in children who participated in sports club activities, this suggests that their daily exercise efforts may improve their executive function.

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  • Yuta Uematsu, Masamitsu Ito, Takeru Gushiken, Kazuhiro Suzukawa
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 111-118
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    Youth athletes who aim to become top athletes perform a variety of training to improve their competitiveness. As a process of becoming a specialist, it is said that it takes 10,000 hours or 10 years to become an excellent athlete who will be able to play an active role in international competitions and rank at the top level in national competitions from adolescence. In addition, depending on the sport, it is necessary to start at a young age, and one of the sports that specializes in the early recruitment of athletes is the field of gymnastics competition. In recent years, the lives and training activities of particularly promising young gymnasts have been featured from childhood in the news and in special programs. On the other hand, the reason why a top gymnast who quit sports activities for some reason during their youth have not been published. Therefore in this study, we conducted retrospective interviews of gymnasts, and clarified not only their competitive life but also the relationship between the gymnasts and their coaches. While several coaching behaviors were evident, several athletes were subjected to “direct intimidation” or a “indirect intimidation” type of power harassment by their coaches. Behavioral restraint by their coaches was common to all athletes. There was undoubtedly conflict in the relationship between the youth top gymnasts and their coaches in gymnastics disciplines, and while future technological innovations will inevitably lead to early acquisition of advanced skills, sports should not make athletes unhappy.

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  • Mikio Hibino, Takanori Ishi
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-135
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    Understanding the causes of coaches’ doping behavior is an important research topic in the anti-doping literature. This study qualitatively explored the perceptions of the induction factors influencing twelve Japanese coaches’ behaviour toward doping. A thematic analysis method was utilized to analize the semi-structured interview data. Three main themes were found: personal, socio-environmental, and situational factors. The perceived personal factor consisted of six sub-themes: ‘immoral stance’, ‘extrinsic motivation’, and ‘ego orientation’. The perceived socio-environmental factor was divided into eight sub-themes: ‘persons of interest on national federation and club’, ‘doping by other persons’, ‘social norm, and so on. The perceived situational factor entails six sub-themes: ‘important competition’, ‘athletes’ low performance’, “athletes’ injury’, etc. Several interactions were observed and suggested directions for future research. These findings will help us to develop evidence-based preventive measures against doping.

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  • Kenta Matsumoto, Tomoyasu Kondoh
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 137-148
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooperative learning in elementary school physical education classes.

    To conduct this investigation, a ball game was played by students in one class at one school over 8 one-hour PE sessions (6th-grade 31 students in total).The lessons were based on the concept of cooperative learning. The class was divided into 8 groups and 3 of those groups were observation targets. The data were collected and analyzed according to the following three measurements: “Students’ dialogues,” “Students’ social skills” and “Teacher’s feedback.”

    This study resulted in two main findings.

    1) There was a big difference between the three groups in “Students’ dialogues” and “Students’ social skills.” In one group, all members had interactive dialogue. In the other two groups, only one or two students dominated the dialogue.

    2) The teacher gave positive feedback, but not frequently to the group of students.

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  • Yukihiro Abe, Takafumi Kiyomiya, Mitsuyo Yoda, Mikio Hibino
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 149-160
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    This study aims to examine lifestyle factors of users of public sports facilities to understand the structure of their lifestyle and the relationship between their lifestyle and their basic attributes.

    The findings of this study can be summarized as follows:

    (1) As a result of conducting a factor analysis on the lifestyle of users of public sports facilities, six factors (i.e. “rest,” “circle of friends,” “sense of fulfillment,” “physical fitness and health,” “family,” and “stress release”) were extracted.

    (2) The factor that showed the highest value among the lifestyle factors was stress release, followed by physical fitness and health, whereas the factor that showed the lowest value was rest.

    (3) As a result of comparing lifestyle factors and gender, males showed a significantly higher value in the factor physical fitness and health.

    (4) As a result of comparing lifestyle factors and the age group, those in their 40s or younger showed a significantly higher value in the factors rest, circle of friends, and family than those in their 50s or older, while those in their 50s or older showed a significantly higher value in the factor physical fitness and health than those in their 40s or younger.

    (5) As a result of comparing the lifestyle factors and whether the subjects had a regular job or not, those with a regular job showed a significantly higher value in the factor stress release than those without a regular job.

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Research Reports
  • Keiichi Sato, Hitoshi Matsubara, Keiji Suzuki
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 161-173
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    In Karate-Kumite matches, there are many cases where the referee’s judgment is difficult, and an erroneous judgment often occurs. In recent years, artificial intelligence,(maybe cut such as deep learning) has been introduced into ball games, athletics, competitive swimming, gymnastics, etc. It has been applied not only to judgments but also to tactics and training systems, but research reports on Karate-Kumite competition have not been reported yet. There are problems such as the inability to attach sensors to the body, and players cross each other at high speed, many blind spots occur. Therefore a method to get the motion data during competition and a Basic Method for identifying the motions has not been developed. Then, we propose a method to acquire motion data of Karate-Kumite and a basic method for identifying the movements. The method of recognizing play using (deep learning) AI in other sports such as soccer and ice hockey is based on achieving a certain degree of accuracy with a convolutional neural network (CNN).The output of CNN is connected to a system for more advanced play recognition. Therefore, in this study, we shot a Karate-Kumite imitating a match with a video camera and conducted a motion identification experiment using CNN. As a result, we obtained the required accuracy in order to connect to a system that performs more advanced motion identification with the estimation of “attack technique” or “not attack technique” or “attack technique hit” or “not hit.” In conclusion, from this motion identification experiment for Karate, the problem of introducing AI was clarified.

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  • Yoshimi Yamahira, Toshikazu Kimura, Kazuhiko Saito, Tomoya Shiraishi
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 175-186
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    This study aimed to clarify trends in Japanese research on physical education and sports in Cambodian school education. Thirty-two articles were selected by searching the CiNii Articles database. These articles were then classified using a theoretical framework based on Masamoto (2004).The following six trends were identified:

    1) The 32 articles were categorized into research related to systems and organizations, curriculum guidelines, extracurricular activities, and teacher training.

    2) Many of the studies relating to systems and organizations ascertained the actual situation and issues facing Cambodia with regard to physical education and sports in the school education and were able to derive the issues themselves.

    3) Studies relating to the “physical measurement and fitness test” conducted among the children when the Cambodian school curriculums were revised counted for the highest number of studies at 15 articles.

    4) Research on “teaching materials for physical education classes” suggested the possibility that they could be used as reference points when examining the spread of physical education and sports in school education systems of other developing countries.

    5) Studies relating to extracurricular activities were being accumulated mainly in relation to primary education.

    6) Studies relating to teacher training in Cambodia are expected to accumulate.

    Based on these research trends, five issues for future research were identified.

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Case Report
  • Manabu Matsuse, Takumi Yamamoto, Kosuke Tomita
    2021 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 187-195
    Published: March 20, 2021
    Released: April 08, 2021
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    Japan hosted the Rugby World Cup (hereinafter called “RWC”) in the autumn of 2019, which brought about the biggest economic impact in RWC history. International Sport events require an ex post facto evaluation from multiple perspectives. What were the effects on regional developments?(I think that this google translate of your Japanese abstract is a better sentence; So how did the event lead to regional development?)

    The effects of international sporting events are mainly divided into economic effects and social effects. The economic impact was already disclosed by the RWC 2019 Organizing Committee. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the social impact that the RWC brought to the 12 venues in the eyes of host municipalities and persons in charge of RWC at the regional rugby organizations. Fifteen people from the venues and 12 people from the regional rugby associations in charge of the RWC were interviewed. Before hosting a future international event is considered, a ex post facto evaluation of the current event, while clarifying the results from a local perspective, has social as well as academic significance.

    In regards to the social impact of the RWC on local communities, 13 categories of structured concepts were formed (maybe identified is better than formed?).Social impact on local communities include “evaluation on operations”, “acquisition of local pride and confidence”, “sense of unity and solidarity among residents”, “awareness for international exchange”, “contingency”, “acquisition of knowhow of event operations”, “increased volunteer activities”, “improved local hospitality”, sport related perceived impact include “increased popularity of rugby”, “activation of local sport/rugby”, “improved sports facilities”. Characteristics of this event were “contribution to rebuilding after earthquakes” for Kamaishi city, Iwate Prefecture and Kumamoto city Kumamoto Prefecture, and “revitalization of children” through inviting elementary and junior high school children to watch games was also clarified.

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