運動とスポーツの科学
Online ISSN : 2435-9912
Print ISSN : 1342-1026
最新号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
原著論文
  • Michael Annear, Yasuo Shimizu, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 87-101
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    オリンピックの開催は,主催国における国民の身体活動量の増加を促進させる潜在的な可能性があるが,一方で,そのような身体活動レガシーに関する研究報告は,ほとんど行われていない.また,身体活動レガシーに関する研究では,肯定的な報告が極めて少ないが,研究のデザインや方法に限界があることも確かである.したがって,本研究では,東京オリンピックが開催される前段階において,スポーツイベント計画が国民の身体活動量の促進に必要とされる課題と方法について,複数の研究者によるコンセンサスを導き出すことを目的とした.〈方法〉国際的な最優良実践事例のガイドラインに従って,2018年度において,2段階の混合計画によるデルファイ法を用いた調査研究を実施した.調査には,世界の5つの地域から,合計27名の研究者(スポーツ科学,身体活動研究,オリンピック研究を専門とした各種の研究者)が参加し,多種多様な専門知識にもとづく知見が集められた.特に,日本を含むアジア太平洋地域から参加した研究者には,東京オリンピックに向けて検討しなければならない,地域的な問題に関する専門的な知見を求めた.〈結果〉本研究に参加した,複数の研究者たちから同意を得た見解(50%以上の回答率)により,5つのテーマと6つの所見に対するコンセンサスが得られたことが示された.研究者たちは,オリンピックによる国民の身体活動促進について否定的な見解を示しており,実体的な都市の基盤構造の整備とスポーツ関連施設の開発だけが推進されることを予測し,国民の身体活動量促進に関する長期的で戦略的な計画が不足していることを強調している.一方,専門家たちは,将来のオリンピック競技において,もしも適切な状況を整えることができるのであれば,国民の身体活動量の増加を達成できる可能性があることも示唆している.しかし,そのような成果を得るための条件として,政府からの持続的な財政的援助と身体活動量の測定指標を活用した長期的な調査および各関係者の支援が必要であることも断言している.オリンピックの開催による,国民の身体活動への影響を正確に把握するためには,研究者たちが,縦断的なコホート研究を適切な部分的な母集団に対して行う必要があるとも提言している.〈結論〉過去のオリンピックの大会開催においては,都市の基盤整備やスポーツ関連施設の開発が行われたが,国民の身体活動増進に関しては達成できていない.主催国の国民に対する具体的な成果を残すためには,戦略的な身体活動レガシーに関するマネジメントを長期的に実施する必要があり,ベースラインとなる身体活動量に関するデータを収集して縦断的に調査研究を行う必要がある.

  • 永田 康喜, 具志堅 武, 酒本 勝太, 鈴川 一宏
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 103-110
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Executive function is important for maintaining a high quality of life. Exercise is effective for enhancing executive functions, and many children can participate in exercise activities at school sports club events. However, it is still unclear how participation in sports club activities exerts a positive effect on the executive functions of children. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate and compare the executive function of elementary school children participating in sports club activities and non-sports club activities.

    This study included 124 fourth grade students (57 boys and 67 girls) at the targeted elementary school. These children selected club activities independently among the following options: physical play, football, basketball, brass band, computer activities, or none. The Stroop Test, Design Fluency Test, and Trail Making Test (TMT) were used to assess their executive functions. We compared children’s executive functions before and 6 weeks after initiation of the club activities between children who participated in sports activities and those who participated in non-sports club activities using two-way analysis of covariance adjusted for sex.

    Although both the groups showed significant improvement in most tests after 6 weeks, there were no significant “group×time” interactions in any variable. However we confirmed the group effects in the time to complete TMT-A and TMT-B,for those who participated in sports club activities had a better score than those who participated in non-sports club activities (p=0.028, p=0.025).

    Participation in sports club activities for 6 weeks could improve executive functions; however, the impact was not different from that achieved after participation in non-sports club activities. Conversely, because the time to complete TMT-A and TMT-B before and after participation was better in children who participated in sports club activities, this suggests that their daily exercise efforts may improve their executive function.

  • 植松 雄太, 伊藤 雅充, 具志堅 武, 鈴川 一宏
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 111-118
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Youth athletes who aim to become top athletes perform a variety of training to improve their competitiveness. As a process of becoming a specialist, it is said that it takes 10,000 hours or 10 years to become an excellent athlete who will be able to play an active role in international competitions and rank at the top level in national competitions from adolescence. In addition, depending on the sport, it is necessary to start at a young age, and one of the sports that specializes in the early recruitment of athletes is the field of gymnastics competition. In recent years, the lives and training activities of particularly promising young gymnasts have been featured from childhood in the news and in special programs. On the other hand, the reason why a top gymnast who quit sports activities for some reason during their youth have not been published. Therefore in this study, we conducted retrospective interviews of gymnasts, and clarified not only their competitive life but also the relationship between the gymnasts and their coaches. While several coaching behaviors were evident, several athletes were subjected to “direct intimidation” or a “indirect intimidation” type of power harassment by their coaches. Behavioral restraint by their coaches was common to all athletes. There was undoubtedly conflict in the relationship between the youth top gymnasts and their coaches in gymnastics disciplines, and while future technological innovations will inevitably lead to early acquisition of advanced skills, sports should not make athletes unhappy.

  • 日比野 幹生, 石井 隆憲
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 119-135
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Understanding the causes of coaches’ doping behavior is an important research topic in the anti-doping literature. This study qualitatively explored the perceptions of the induction factors influencing twelve Japanese coaches’ behaviour toward doping. A thematic analysis method was utilized to analize the semi-structured interview data. Three main themes were found: personal, socio-environmental, and situational factors. The perceived personal factor consisted of six sub-themes: ‘immoral stance’, ‘extrinsic motivation’, and ‘ego orientation’. The perceived socio-environmental factor was divided into eight sub-themes: ‘persons of interest on national federation and club’, ‘doping by other persons’, ‘social norm, and so on. The perceived situational factor entails six sub-themes: ‘important competition’, ‘athletes’ low performance’, “athletes’ injury’, etc. Several interactions were observed and suggested directions for future research. These findings will help us to develop evidence-based preventive measures against doping.

  • 松本 健太, 近藤 智靖
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 137-148
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooperative learning in elementary school physical education classes.

    To conduct this investigation, a ball game was played by students in one class at one school over 8 one-hour PE sessions (6th-grade 31 students in total).The lessons were based on the concept of cooperative learning. The class was divided into 8 groups and 3 of those groups were observation targets. The data were collected and analyzed according to the following three measurements: “Students’ dialogues,” “Students’ social skills” and “Teacher’s feedback.”

    This study resulted in two main findings.

    1) There was a big difference between the three groups in “Students’ dialogues” and “Students’ social skills.” In one group, all members had interactive dialogue. In the other two groups, only one or two students dominated the dialogue.

    2) The teacher gave positive feedback, but not frequently to the group of students.

  • 阿部 征大, 清宮 孝文, 依田 充代, 日比野 幹生
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 149-160
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    This study aims to examine lifestyle factors of users of public sports facilities to understand the structure of their lifestyle and the relationship between their lifestyle and their basic attributes.

    The findings of this study can be summarized as follows:

    (1) As a result of conducting a factor analysis on the lifestyle of users of public sports facilities, six factors (i.e. “rest,” “circle of friends,” “sense of fulfillment,” “physical fitness and health,” “family,” and “stress release”) were extracted.

    (2) The factor that showed the highest value among the lifestyle factors was stress release, followed by physical fitness and health, whereas the factor that showed the lowest value was rest.

    (3) As a result of comparing lifestyle factors and gender, males showed a significantly higher value in the factor physical fitness and health.

    (4) As a result of comparing lifestyle factors and the age group, those in their 40s or younger showed a significantly higher value in the factors rest, circle of friends, and family than those in their 50s or older, while those in their 50s or older showed a significantly higher value in the factor physical fitness and health than those in their 40s or younger.

    (5) As a result of comparing the lifestyle factors and whether the subjects had a regular job or not, those with a regular job showed a significantly higher value in the factor stress release than those without a regular job.

研究報告
  • 佐藤 恵一, 松原 仁, 鈴木 恵二
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 161-173
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    In Karate-Kumite matches, there are many cases where the referee’s judgment is difficult, and an erroneous judgment often occurs. In recent years, artificial intelligence,(maybe cut such as deep learning) has been introduced into ball games, athletics, competitive swimming, gymnastics, etc. It has been applied not only to judgments but also to tactics and training systems, but research reports on Karate-Kumite competition have not been reported yet. There are problems such as the inability to attach sensors to the body, and players cross each other at high speed, many blind spots occur. Therefore a method to get the motion data during competition and a Basic Method for identifying the motions has not been developed. Then, we propose a method to acquire motion data of Karate-Kumite and a basic method for identifying the movements. The method of recognizing play using (deep learning) AI in other sports such as soccer and ice hockey is based on achieving a certain degree of accuracy with a convolutional neural network (CNN).The output of CNN is connected to a system for more advanced play recognition. Therefore, in this study, we shot a Karate-Kumite imitating a match with a video camera and conducted a motion identification experiment using CNN. As a result, we obtained the required accuracy in order to connect to a system that performs more advanced motion identification with the estimation of “attack technique” or “not attack technique” or “attack technique hit” or “not hit.” In conclusion, from this motion identification experiment for Karate, the problem of introducing AI was clarified.

  • 山平 芳美, 木村 寿一, 齊藤 一彦, 白石 智也
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 175-186
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    This study aimed to clarify trends in Japanese research on physical education and sports in Cambodian school education. Thirty-two articles were selected by searching the CiNii Articles database. These articles were then classified using a theoretical framework based on Masamoto (2004).The following six trends were identified:

    1) The 32 articles were categorized into research related to systems and organizations, curriculum guidelines, extracurricular activities, and teacher training.

    2) Many of the studies relating to systems and organizations ascertained the actual situation and issues facing Cambodia with regard to physical education and sports in the school education and were able to derive the issues themselves.

    3) Studies relating to the “physical measurement and fitness test” conducted among the children when the Cambodian school curriculums were revised counted for the highest number of studies at 15 articles.

    4) Research on “teaching materials for physical education classes” suggested the possibility that they could be used as reference points when examining the spread of physical education and sports in school education systems of other developing countries.

    5) Studies relating to extracurricular activities were being accumulated mainly in relation to primary education.

    6) Studies relating to teacher training in Cambodia are expected to accumulate.

    Based on these research trends, five issues for future research were identified.

事例報告
  • 松瀬 学, 山本 巧, 冨田 幸祐
    2021 年 26 巻 2 号 p. 187-195
    発行日: 2021/03/20
    公開日: 2021/04/08
    ジャーナル 認証あり

    Japan hosted the Rugby World Cup (hereinafter called “RWC”) in the autumn of 2019, which brought about the biggest economic impact in RWC history. International Sport events require an ex post facto evaluation from multiple perspectives. What were the effects on regional developments?(I think that this google translate of your Japanese abstract is a better sentence; So how did the event lead to regional development?)

    The effects of international sporting events are mainly divided into economic effects and social effects. The economic impact was already disclosed by the RWC 2019 Organizing Committee. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the social impact that the RWC brought to the 12 venues in the eyes of host municipalities and persons in charge of RWC at the regional rugby organizations. Fifteen people from the venues and 12 people from the regional rugby associations in charge of the RWC were interviewed. Before hosting a future international event is considered, a ex post facto evaluation of the current event, while clarifying the results from a local perspective, has social as well as academic significance.

    In regards to the social impact of the RWC on local communities, 13 categories of structured concepts were formed (maybe identified is better than formed?).Social impact on local communities include “evaluation on operations”, “acquisition of local pride and confidence”, “sense of unity and solidarity among residents”, “awareness for international exchange”, “contingency”, “acquisition of knowhow of event operations”, “increased volunteer activities”, “improved local hospitality”, sport related perceived impact include “increased popularity of rugby”, “activation of local sport/rugby”, “improved sports facilities”. Characteristics of this event were “contribution to rebuilding after earthquakes” for Kamaishi city, Iwate Prefecture and Kumamoto city Kumamoto Prefecture, and “revitalization of children” through inviting elementary and junior high school children to watch games was also clarified.

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