This review provides a brief overview of ion channels, then focuses on TRP channels, describing the properties and functions of the seven TRP channel classes found in insects. Finally, recent work showing that a heteromeric channel composed of Nanchung and Inactive vanilloid TRP (TRPV) channel subunits is the target of the selective feeding blockers pymetrozine and pyrifluquinazon is described. The possible utility of other TRP channels as targets of insecticides and repellents is also considered.
Propanil stress response in the eel (Anguilla anguilla) was examined. Eels were exposed to 3.16 mg/L for 72 hr and allowed to recover for 96 hr. Plasma levels of cortisol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, ammonium, lactate, albumin, and total proteins as well as electrolytes (chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus) were determined. As a consequence of exposure, cortisol, AP, AST, and LDH increased. A hyperglycemic condition, together with hyperlactemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglycemia was registered. Ammonium increased during exposure concomitantly to hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypokatremia. During recovery, chloride, sodium, potassium, ammonium, albumin and LDH normalized. At the end of the experiment, fish still exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperlactemia. Hypercalcemia was observed. Cholesterol, triglycerides, AP, and AST did not recuperate. These findings are important for assessing potential risks for areas where fish are grown near intensive herbicide use (i.e., paddy fields).
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