Objectives Comprehensive community sports clubs (CCSCs), of which more than 3,500 exist in Japan, have the potential to contribute to healthy aging in older adults, but their effect on this population has not, thus far, been well explored. This study aimed to investigate the current environment affecting seniors at Japanese CCSCs and to examine issues identified by the analysis.
Methods Data were collected from the FY 2016 Survey Results on Comprehensive Community Sports Clubs, conducted by the Japan Sports Agency. A total of 2,444 clubs were divided equally into four groups after calculating the proportion of senior members (ages 60 and over) per total number of members in each club. The groups were then ranked from lowest to highest according to proportion of senior members: Groups A, B, C and D. Additionally, the 2,444 clubs were classified into six regions according to location. Group designation (A to D) and regional classification were used as independent variables. The dependent variables were categorized as follows: basic information (e.g. total number of members), crisis management and accident prevention measures (13 specific items in total), and each club's compliance with legal obligations.
Results Study results revealed that Group D, containing the highest proportion of senior members, had fewer total members, lower monthly membership fees, lower annual club income, less annual club budget apportioned to each member, and fewer instructors than other groups. Regarding crisis management and accident prevention measures, Group D had lower completion rates on 6 items (health certificate submissions, liability insurance enrollment, safety workshop implementation, heatstroke prevention, liaison with healthcare professionals, and AED availability). Group D also showed a lower rate of compliance with legal obligations than other groups. In comparisons between the six regions, the median proportion of senior members was found to be highest in Chugoku-Shikoku and lowest in Chubu, although each median ranged from only 20% to 30%. Regarding crisis management and accident prevention measures, clubs in Kanto region had the highest completion rates for 10 items, whereas clubs in Kinki region had the lowest completion rates for 8 items.
Conclusion The CCSCs with higher proportions of senior members had smaller budgets, fewer members and staff, and delayed implementation of crisis management and accident prevention measures. Regional disparities were also observed both in club scale and management of medical and safety issues. Although our study identified several shortcomings in this area, medical and safety management implementation is an important consideration for CCSCs with high proportions of senior members, as these members are at higher risk for disease and frailty. Affected CCSCs and relevant authorities should therefore acknowledge and address this issue cooperatively.
Objectives This study aimed to observe the life prognosis of persons with dementia during the first five years after registering for long-term care insurance, and to determine the factors affecting their prognosis.
Methods A total of 556 persons, aged 65 years or older newly registered for long-term care insurance in a city in Japan, were observed. The life prognosis of the registered persons was determined using standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with the general population as a standard, and relevant factors were observed in terms of dependence indices of dementia and disability.
Results The mean age of persons newly registered for long-term care insurance was 81.6 years and 63% of them were females. Mortality during the first 4.5 years after registration was 16.7% p.a., with males and those of older age having higher rates. The SMR was 1.80 for all individuals, with males and those of younger age having a higher SMR. The SMR increased with the severity of the disability (higher classes on the disability dependence index) at the time of the registration, while no significant trend was seen in SMR with the dementia dependence index. Multivariate analysis revealed that mortality was dependent on sex (male>female), age (older>younger), disability dependence indices (higher classes>lower classes), and current place of residence (home>facility), while there were no significant trends found in mortality with degree of severity on the dementia dependence indices. The adjusted odds ratios of dying from respective factors were as follow: from sex (male/female, with male as a standard) 0.35 (95% confidence interval 0.24-0.51), from age group (65-74 years/75-84/85+, stepwise with 65-74 years as a standard) 1.84 (1.39-2.47), from disability dependence index (normal/I/Ⅱa/Ⅱb..., stepwise with “normal” as standard) 1.38 (1.21-1.58), and from place of residence (home/facility, with home as a standard) 0.64 (0.42-0.99). When limited to only the elderly with dementia dependence indices of Ⅱa-Ⅳ, the analysis showed similar results.
Conclusion Elderly persons registered for long-term care insurance had higher mortality rates than the general population that was dependent on the disability dependence index, but not on the dementia dependent index. Further studies are therefore necessary to elucidate the factors relevant to the study's finding.
Objectives Pharmacies and pharmacists play an important role in health promotion by supporting citizens' attempts to quit smoking. Nevertheless, some pharmacies sell tobacco themselves. Therefore, we conducted a survey on tobacco sales in pharmacies to investigate regional differences and methods of sale.
Methods As a nationwide survey, we merged the Japanese Local Finance Bureau's 2018 list of enterprisers permitted to sell tobacco with the Japanese Regional Bureau of Health and Welfare's list of insurance pharmacies to calculate the number and proportion of new insurance pharmacies that permit tobacco sales. Additionally, we counted the number and proportion of pharmacies in convenience stores selling tobacco based on the data on their websites and the aforementioned insurance pharmacy list. To provide a survey of existing pharmacies, we confirmed the tobacco selling status, presence of smoking space, presence of anti-passive smoking measures, and the coexistence of drugstores or convenience stores among insurance pharmacies in City A (an urban area in Osaka Prefecture) and City B (a rural area in Ishikawa Prefecture). These data were obtained through site visits from December 2018 to February 2019.
Results Among 1,766 new insurance pharmacies in Japan, 124 (7.0%) were newly permitted to sell tobacco. Many insurance pharmacies in Kanto (71 of 602 new insurance pharmacies; 11.8%) and Tohoku (9 of 110; 8.2%) sold tobacco, while such pharmacies were rare in Shikoku (0 of 64; 0.0%) and Kyushu (1 of 211; 0.5%). Out of the total of 42 pharmacies in convenience stores in Japan, 34 (81%) of them sold tobacco, specifically in urban areas. To provide an existing insurance pharmacy survey, 1 of 28 pharmacies (4%) in City A and 3 of 29 (10%) in City B sold tobacco. All 4 pharmacies sold tobacco at their checkout counters and were located in drugstores. Three of the pharmacies (one in City A and two in City B) had smoking spaces outside, without offering any preventive measure for passive smoking.
Conclusion Many insurance pharmacies sell tobacco in Japan. To encourage pharmacists to support smoking cessation, we need to reach consensus regarding tobacco sales in insurance pharmacies through discussions.
Objective The purpose of this study is to redefine “Gojo” (mutual help) among residents and explore measures to develop it Gojo in the integrated community care system. In 2000, long-term care insurance accelerated Japan's movement toward an aging society, thus increasing the importance of Gojo. This study aims to clarify the conceptual definition it has come to acquire in recent years and explore ways it can be developed in comprehensive community systems.
Methodology Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis was utilized in the study. A keyword research was done using the term “Gojo” in the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (Ichushi Web) and CiNii Articles databases. The search period was from 2000 to 2016 (search date: August 30, 2016) and the database search formula was set to “Gojo/TA”. Thirty documents were selected through random sampling and a total of 32 documents were selected for analysis, including landmark documents. A qualitative analysis was conducted on three frameworks: attributes (i.e., characteristics of Gojo), antecedents (i.e., factors affecting Gojo), and consequences (i.e., expected results for Gojo). These three frameworks represent how Gojo is used, the events occurring before it, and the events resulting from it, respectively.
Results The characteristics of Gojo were found to include “experiences of empathy toward residents’ daily need for support,” “awareness about the residents’ efforts to support each other,” and “interaction among residents who support other's daily needs.” The factors affecting Gojo were identified to be “the need for daily life support beyond what self-help, social solidarity care, and governmental care can provide”; “interchange among residents”; “sharing needs for daily life support among residents”; and “a resident-led public system that promotes mutual support.” Gojo’s expected results were “a solution for residents’ needs of daily support”; “promotion of self-help awareness”; “providing them with a role to enhance their purpose in life”; and “encouraging exchanges and relations between them.”
Conclusion Gojo was defined as “the interaction between local residents who support their daily needs, have an empathic experience of the need for daily life support, and have the desire to support each other.” In addition, the following points were suggested as measures necessary to expand Gojo. The residents must have sympathy for other residents who need daily life support, understand the benefits of supporting each other, and have a public support system, even if Gojo is led by the residents.