Objective This study aims to identify changes in homebound status and related factors in community-dwelling older adults participating in physical checkups over two years in order to help with prevention and recovery from being homebound.
Methods A survey on needs in the sphere of daily life was conducted in July 2011 among 6,696 independent older adults in 10 regions of Kameoka City (baseline survey). Of the 6,696 adults, 1,379 responded to the survey and participated in a physical checkup held between March and April 2012. These individuals were then invited to a similar checkup again in September 2013. Of these, 638 consenting individuals were administered a questionnaire survey (follow-up survey). In all, 522 subjects responded to both surveys (baseline and follow-up) regarding being homebound. The responses involved basic attributes, state of daily living, state of health, items of the Kihon Checklist, items concerning daily living activities in the baseline survey, and items concerning being homebound in the follow-up survey. The responses were analyzed, and an evaluation of homebound status was conducted based on whether or not one (or both) of the two items of the Kihon Checklist were applicable. The subjects were classified according to the following: 1) whether non-homebound individuals remained non-homebound (non-homebound group) or whether they became homebound (homebound transition group) and 2) whether individuals who became homebound recovered (recovery group) or remained the same (persisting group). After comparing the characteristics of each group, a logistic regression analysis was employed to analyze the factors related to changes in homebound status after two years.
Results Of the 375 non-homebound individuals in the baseline survey, 326 (86.9%) and 49 (13.1%) were classified into non-homebound and homebound transition groups, respectively. Of the 147 subjects who became homebound, 85 (57.8%) and 62 (42.2%) were classified into the recovery and persisting groups, respectively.
Among the factors related to change in homebound status after two years, a low score of social role (OR=0.675, CI=0.458-0.997) was an independent factor for being at risk of becoming homebound (P<0.05). Having no diseases under treatment (OR=14.340, CI=1.345-152.944) and a high intellectual activity score (OR=2.643, CI=1.378-5.069) were independent factors of recovery from being homebound (P<0.05).
Conclusion The results of the two year longitudinal study suggest the need for support for non-homebound older individuals devoid of social roles to prevent homebound status. Additionally, there is a need for support surrounding the reduction in obtaining a disease and maintaining intellectual activity in order to recover from being homebound.
Objective In recent years, the long-term use of media (including the Internet, video games, and social networking services) at a young age has been regarded as a problem. It has been pointed out that prolonged media usage may have an undesirable effect on the growth of adolescents from the physical, mental, and social perspectives. Junior and senior high school students are in a particularly important period of self-management of the basic lifestyle habits acquired thus far. Additionally, they must cultivate the ability to interact appropriately with media used daily. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the time expended on media usage and lifestyle habits among junior and senior high school students.
Methods A sample of 1,633 students was extracted from all junior and senior high schools in Fukushima City. Principals of the schools distributed a self-administered questionnaire to their students. In total, 1,589 responses were obtained; as surveys of 30 students were missing values for gender and grade, they were excluded from the analysis, and data from 1,559 respondents were ultimately analyzed. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between an independent variable (media usage time) and dependent variables (subjective health, lifestyle habits, and drinking and smoking experience) while controlling for gender and grade.
Results Among junior high students, media usage for more than three hours was significantly related to “no breakfast,” “no exercise habits,” “irregular sleep,” “lack of rest,” and “feeling stressed.” Among high school students, media usage for three hours or more was significantly related to “poor subjective health status,” “eating only one or two meals a day,” “no breakfast,” “low food diversity,” “obesity,” “no exercise habits,” “irregular sleep,” “late bedtime,” “waking up late,” “drinking,” and “smoking.”
Conclusion Our findings indicate that three or more hours of daily media usage is related to unhealthy lifestyles in terms of sleeping, eating, physical activity, drinking, and smoking. Junior and senior high school students who responded to the survey indicated that prolonged usage was also adversely related to their subjective health. Because the overuse of media is associated with students’ lifestyles and health, it is important to develop an educational system that helps junior and senior high school students use media properly.
Objectives In Japan, the proportion of older people receiving end-of-life care in geriatric health services facilities (GHSF) is increasing. However, to our knowledge, there have been no previous studies investigating the relationship between the structure of GHSFs and the quality of end-of-life care evaluated by bereaved families.
Methods We secondarily analyzed data from the survey done by the Japan Association of Geriatric Health Services Facilities (JAGHSF) in January 2014. Study subjects were 3 recently bereaved family members who had experienced planned end-of-life care at different facilities of the JAGHSF.
The dependent variable was the bereaved family members’ satisfaction with end-of-life care, which was obtained based on the best answer out of a 5 point scale for the question “Didn't you regret your family member's death immediately after he/she died?” The independent variables included schemes of explanation of patients’ conditions at GHSF, management, and education of facilities and staff by doctors. We conducted a univariate analysis, followed by a multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Results For the final analysis, we included 363 bereaved family members, of which 250 (68.9%) were satisfied with the end-of-life care. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, family members’ satisfaction was significantly associated with regular medical consultation by doctors for facility users (adjusted odds ratio 2.94, 95% CI 1.52-5.70), explanation about patients’ conditions at the time of admission by facility staff other than doctors (2.07, 1.01-4.25), explanation about patients’ conditions at the time of deterioration by facility staff other than doctors (3.12, 1.17-8.33), and stress management by doctors for facility staff (3.63, 1.84-7.16).
Conclusions Respect for the roles of the facility staff other than doctors, such as the participation of facility staff in explaining situations for facility users and family members and management of facility staff stress, may improve satisfaction with end-of-life care among bereaved family members. More attention is needed for these factors to improve the quality of end-of-life care in GHSFs.
Objectives This study aimed to examine the awareness of the term “frailty” and its correlates among older adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area.
Methods We used baseline and 2-year follow-up data from a community-wide intervention on preventing frailty in Ota City, Tokyo. In July 2016, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey via mail to investigate the lifestyle and health status of 15,500 non-disabled residents aged 65-84 years from all 18 districts. In July 2018, we investigated the awareness of the term “frailty” in the same sample using a different questionnaire, and 10,228 people (4,977 men and 5,251 women) were included in the analyses. In addition, 9,069 people (4,347 men and 4,722 women) who responded to both 2016 and 2018 surveys were analyzed for correlates of awareness of the term “frailty.” We categorized the responses “I know the meaning” or “I have heard of it but do not know the meaning” as awareness of the term. Decision tree and multilevel Poisson regression analyses were performed to examine the association of the following with awareness of “frailty”: age, marital status, living situation, education, equivalent income, body mass index, number of chronic diseases, alcohol consumption, smoking status, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and presence or absence of lower back and knee pains, depressive mood, exercise habits, social activity, social isolation, and frailty.
Results Awareness of the term “frailty” was estimated as 20.1% in total (15.5% in men and 24.3% in women). The subgroup with the highest “frailty” awareness was women who exercised, were socially active, and had a DVS of 4 or more (awareness of 36.3%). Significant independent correlates of “frailty” awareness were age (as per year: multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio=1.03, [95% confidence interval=1.02-1.04]), sex (women: 1.35 [1.21-1.51]), educational attainment (high school: 1.27 [1.11-1.45], higher than junior college/vocational schools: 1.47 [1.28-1.70]), equivalent income (more than 2.5 million yen/year: 1.12 [1.01-1.25]), exercise habits (presence: 1.26 [1.11-1.43]), DVS (6 points or more: 1.37 [1.21-1.55]), social activity (presence: 1.33 [1.20-1.49]), social isolation (presence: 0.75 [0.67-0.85]), and frailty (presence: 0.72 [0.62-0.84]).
Conclusions Although many policies refer to “frailty,” the level of awareness of the term among older adults was low. Older adults, especially women, who had higher socioeconomic status, better exercise and dietary habits, and stronger social connections, were significantly more aware of the term. In contrast, individuals who were socially isolated and/or frail did not know the term. Thus, it is crucial to develop specific measures to promote frailty prevention among high-risk individuals.