Objectives To obtain suggestions for improving disaster-prevention literacy, this study elucidated the daily information-gathering behavior of residents living in areas affected by two Japanese natural disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 and the Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall Disaster in September 2015) and examined factors affecting life backgrounds and disaster experiences.
Methods In June 2017, we administered a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to 1,065 households in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall. One person in each household responded to the questionnaire. Of 362 respondents (response rate 34.0%), 336 with definite attributes were analyzed. After ascertaining their daily information-gathering behavior, we applied binary logistic regression analysis, incorporating—as dependent variables—three variables previously used in times of disaster.
Results Of the respondents, 179 were men (53.3%); the average age (standard deviation) was 65.5 (10.6) years. Information-gathering modes used by more than half the subjects were “television,” “newspaper,” “conversation/word of mouth,” “radio,” and “community magazine” in descending order of use.
Examination of the factors of the three variables revealed the following. (1) Four variables were significantly and positively correlated with “conversation/word of mouth”: “woman” (1.82 odds ratio [OR]; 1.05-3.15 95% confidence interval [CI]); “I have” a co-resident family member (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.06-5.72); “I can expect” mutual aid from community residents (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.27-4.21); and “I feel more” fear of typhoons and heavy rains now than before (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.18). (2) “Radio” has two variables with significant and positive correlations: “I have” a co-resident family member (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.35-7.67) and “I was affected” by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall Disaster (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01.2.97). (3) Two variables are significantly correlated with “Internet service”: “Age” has a negative correlation (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.94); “I can expect” mutual aid from community residents has a positive correlation (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.19-5.93).
Conclusion Damage and fear instilled by natural disasters influence subsequent information-gathering behavior. Disaster prevention literacy in ordinary times can be improved because of the correlation between awareness of mutual aid in local communities and information-gathering behavior.
Objectives Approximately 40% of new fitness club (FC) members drop out within the first six months; however, the factors associated with FC membership resignation are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify the association between psychological attitudes toward exercise and FC membership resignation.
Methods We conducted a cohort study enrolling participants from 17 FCs. All individuals who became members at FCs between April 1st, 2015 and March 31st, 2016 (n=5,421) were invited to participate in the study, and those who agreed to participate completed a self-administered baseline questionnaire (n=2,934). We excluded participants aged <20 years (n=167) and those with missing values (n=702). Psychological factors were evaluated using the short version of the perceived benefit and barriers to exercise scale. Participants were followed until September 30th, 2016, at which time we assessed the FC membership drop-out rate. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate the association between perceived benefits/barriers of exercise and FC membership resignation. Sub-analyses were then conducted, stratifying by gender and age group.
Results A total of 2,065 participants were included in the analyses. The mean (standard deviation) age was 39.0 (15.0) years and 28.8% were male. Over 10.1 (4.4) months of newly-joined member follow-up, the FC membership drop-out rate was 24.6 instances per 1000 person-months. Multivariable analyses revealed no significant factors associated with FC membership drop-out. However, men aged 40-59 years who had a high physical benefit score and who perceived improving physical fitness as a benefit, were less likely to resign their memberships (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 [0.52-1.00]). However, women aged <40 years with a high discomfort score and who saw discomfort as a barrier were more likely to resign membership (HR, 1.10 [1.01-1.19]). Women aged 40-59 years with high social benefit scores and who perceived social interaction as a benefit were less likely to resign their memberships, as were women with higher lack of motivation to exercise scores and who perceived lack of motivation as a barrier to exercise (HR for social benefit, 0.84 [0.74-0.97]; HR for lack of motivation, 0.85 [0.73-0.99]). Among both male and female participants aged ≥60 years, higher self-improvement scores, indicating that peer recognition was perceived as a benefit of exercise, was associated with higher HR for drop-out (men, 2.52 [1.10-5.81]; women, 1.31 [1.00-1.72]).
Conclusions The results revealed gender and age differences in the association between the perceived benefits/barriers of exercise and FC membership dropout. Implementing programs based on enrollees’ characteristics and psychological factors may contribute to preventing FC dropout in the future.
Objectives To develop and assess the reliability and validity of a scale measuring subjective quality of life (QOL), which encompasses the “strength and ability” to live positively through the three dimensions of biological life, everyday life, and overall course of life, in order to support QOL in older adults.
Methods We reviewed related literature and conducted interviews with patients with chronic diseases. Participants rated their QOL on a seven-point scale using the visual analog scale. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 100 older adults living in their own homes. The participants were between the ages of 70 and 84, and were recruited from comprehensive community support centers or from among hospital outpatients. We assessed scale reliability using Cronbach's α, item-total (I-T) correlation analysis, and calculation of α coefficient-if-item-deleted. We examined content validity by analyzing the content of the free response items. To evaluate construct validity, we carried out a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, examined the semantic content of the factors related to subjective QOL, and confirmed consistency with previous studies.
Results Regarding the reliability analysis of the scale, the α coefficient was 0.898, and both the I-T correlation and α coefficient-if-item-deleted exceeded the minimum value considered reliable. In examining content validity, the categories extracted for each of the three dimensions were found to demonstrate the characteristics of the general ideas of each dimension of QOL. Thus, the scale was confirmed to have overall content validity. As for the assessment of validity of its constitutive concepts, subjective QOL scores were significantly high among participants who had jobs, had role-related or financial capacity, used two or more nursing services, or scored high in perceived health competence, social networking, and sense of coherence (SOC). In addition, “meaningfulness” of SOC, and financial capacity had significant correlations with subjective QOL. These results are consistent with past research and therefore confirm construct validity.
Conclusion This study sufficiently confirmed the reliability and validity of the scale, and consequently its usability.
Objective An increasing incidence of disuse syndrome is commonly observed in areas affected by large-scale natural disasters. Consequently, the fall risk is high in such populations, necessitating adequate attention to fall prevention measures. It is important to identify factors associated with falls to prevent deterioration in functional ability. We investigated the risk factors associated with falls among elderly survivors in disaster-stricken areas using longitudinal data from the Research project for the prospective Investigation of health problems Among Survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake (RIAS) Study.
Methods Of all data obtained from the RIAS Study, we used the data of 1,380 survivors who were aged ≥65 years, were not diagnosed with cancer or cardiovascular disease, did not need supportive care, and could participate in the annual survey between 2011 and 2016. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed, and anthropometric and grip tests were performed during the 2011 survey to obtain information regarding housing damage, the fear of falls, arthralgia, cognitive function psychological distress, insomnia, frequency of leaving the house, a history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, alcohol consumption status, smoking status, and/or body mass index, and grip strength. Based on the responses obtained from each annual survey, a fall was defined as an event during which an individual had fallen at least once. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio(OR) and 95% confidence interval(CI) for all variables related to falls were calculated using logistic regression with adjustment for sex and residential area. Similar analyses were performed based on age groups (65-74 years and ≥75 years).
Results The 5-year fall incidence rate was 35.5% (31.9% [men], 37.9% [women]). In men, cognitive dysfunction was significantly associated with falls (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.01-2.22). In women, cognitive dysfunction (OR 1.82, 95%CI 1.34-2.47), insomnia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.02-1.94), dyslipidemia (OR 1.58, 95% 95% CI 1.11-2.25), and a history of smoking (OR 4.30, 95%CI 1.08-17.14) were significantly associated with falls. In women aged ≥75 years, partial housing damage (OR 7.93, 95%CI 1.85-33.91) and psychological distress (OR 2.83, 95%CI 1.09-.7.37) were also significantly associated with falls.
Conclusion This study suggests that cognitive dysfunction in both sexes and insomnia, dyslipidemia, and a history of smoking in women were significantly associated with falls, and partial housing damage and psychological distress were risk factors for falls in women aged ≥75 years. Fall prevention after large-scale natural disasters warrants close attention to known risk factors and environmental and mental health changes.
Objectives We investigated the 5-year disease-related mortality risk, including that associated with neoplasms, mental/behavioral/neurodevelopmental disorders, and diseases of the circulatory system and respiratory system,in ambulatory frail Japanese older adults.
Methods We retrospectively analyzed long-term care and health insurance claims data in this cohort study performed between April 2012 and March 2017. The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcome was care-need level decline. Risk factors were determined based on the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision codes, hospitalization, and institutionalization. The study included 1,239 ambulatory frail older adults newly certified as needing Support-Level care at baseline (April 2012-March 2013) across three Japanese municipalities.
Results Of the 1,239 participants, 454 (36.6%) died. Neoplasms (hazard ratio [HR] 2.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.97-3.68) or respiratory system diseases (HR 1.62, 95%CI 1.26-2.08) were independently associated with mortality. Mental/behavioral/neurodevelopmental disorders (HR 1.39, 95%CI 1.17-1.66) or diseases of the respiratory system(HR 86, 95%CI 75-99) were independently associated with care-need level decline.
Conclusions This study suggests that neoplasms or respiratory system diseases were associated with a high mortality risk and that mental/behavioral/neurodevelopmental disorders were associated with care-need level decline among ambulatory frail older adults. Optimal disease management and effective long-term care are important to delay the onset of these events in older adults certified as needing Support-Level care.