Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) signaling is regulated by changing its expression level. Two mechanisms are involved in this regulation. One is down-regulation through receptor desensitization. Receptor phosphorylation seemed crucial because stimulation of the mutant H1R lacking five putative phosphorylation sites did not show down-regulation. The phosphorylation level of the mutant receptor was much smaller than that of the wild type ones by several protein kinases. The other is up-regulation through activation of receptor gene expression. Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling was suggested to be involved in this up-regulation. Regulation of H1R expression level was mediated not only through H1R but also autonomic nerve receptors. Stimulation of M3 muscarinic receptors (M3R) induced both down-regulation and up-regulation of H1R. Down-regulation of M3R-mediated H1R seemed not to be mediated by PKC activation, although PKC activation induced H1R phosphorylation. Elevation of H1R expression was induced by the stimulation of M3Rs. PKC was suggested to be involved in this up-regulation. Stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors induced H1R down-regulation through several mechanisms. One of them is enhanced receptor degradation after desensitization and another is suppression of receptor synthesis that includes the suppression of receptor gene expression and enhanced degradation of the receptor mRNA. Protein kinase A was suggested to be involved in enhanced degradation and the activation of the receptor gene expression. Elevation of both H1R expression and its mRNA was observed in nasal mucosa of nasal hypersensitivity allergy model rat after toluene diisocyanate provocation. These results suggest that activation of H1R gene expression plays an important patho-physiological role in allergy. Elevation of the mRNA was partially but significantly suppressed by antihistamines.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) represent a large and diverse superfamily of integral membrane proteins to which histamine receptors belong. Increasing numbers of proteins have been identified to interact with the C-termini of GPCRs. These interactions are implicated in targeting, trafficking, and fine-tuning of signaling of GPCRs. Although the C-terminus of the histamine H2 receptor has been suggested to play in agonist-induced internalization of the receptor, roles of the C-termini of the other three histamine receptors are not known. To date, there is no protein identified to interact with the C-termini of histamine receptors.
Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) are autoreceptors that negatively regulate the release of histamine and other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine in the central nervous system (CNS). Consistent with the wide-spread projection of histaminergic neurons from the lateral hypothalamus, H3Rs are widely distributed in the CNS and are believed to play a variety of physiological roles, including regulation of feeding, arousal, cognition, pain, and endocrine systems. To further understand the physiological roles of H3Rs in vivo, we produced H3R knockout (H3R−/−) mice and found that H3R−/− mice displayed hyperphagia and late-onset obesity associated with hyperinsulinemia and leptinemia, the fundamental marks of metabolic syndromes. A series of non-imidazole H3R antagonists/inverse agonists with improved selectivity and potency have been developed and were found to regulate feeding and body weight gain in laboratory animals. Taken together, these observations suggest that H3Rs are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Several H3R inverse agonists targeting cognitive disorders and dementia have entered clinical trials. These trials will give critical information about the physiological functions of H3Rs in humans.
Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of histamine in immune responses. The H1 receptor is involved not only in allergic inflammatory reactions but also in augmentation of helper T cell (Th)1 responses, whereas H2 receptor suppresses Th responses and participates in immune tolerance through interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Identification of the H4 receptor, which binds to histamine with high affinity and of which expression is limited to the hematopoietic system, has enhanced the importance of histamine in immune responses. However, since a majority of previous studies has evaluated the effects of exogenous histamine, it remains largely unknown how endogenously produced histamine is involved in regulation of such kinds of immune responses. Insight into precise roles of histamine in the immune system can not be obtained without correct understanding of both the predominance of a certain type of histamine receptor and the regulation of histamine synthesis. Here we review a part of the recent progress in histamine research in the field of immunology with attention to the source of involved histamine.
Histamine is inactivated by the histamine-metabolizing enzyme histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) in bronchus, kidney, and the central nervous system. HNMT seems to be localized in the cytoplasm, but histamine is unable to easily enter the intracellular space. Therefore, two hypotheses can be elicited: one is the plasma membrane hypothesis that HNMT can be translocated to the plasma membrane and function at the cell surface under growth factor stimulation and the other is the transporter hypothesis that organic cation transporter (OCT)-2 and -3 can function as a histamine transporter as well. To investigate the involvement of OCT2, HEK293 cells stably double transfected with C-terminal hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged HNMT cDNA and/or C-terminal myc-tagged rat OCT2 were prepared for analysis of HNMT activity associated with OCT2 function. After 60-min incubation of these cells with PBS including HA (100 μM), Nτ-methylhistamine (MHA) concentration of the supernatants was determined by the HPLC-fluorometry method. MHA from cells with HNMT plus OCT-2 was produced at about 3-fold higher level than that from cells with HNMT alone, suggesting that OCT-2 could function as a histamine transporter as well and that HNMT function could partly depend on OCT-2 transporter activity. Using OCT-3 knockout (OCT-3−/−) mice, histamine content and survival rates were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia model. Without LPS stimulation, histamine content was compared between OCT-3−/− and wild mice. Histamine content in the spleen of OCT-3−/− mice was higher than that f wild mice. With LPS stimulation, the survival rate of OCT-3−/− mice was significantly decreased 12 h after LPS (20 mg/kg) stimulation, suggesting that before immunological stimulation, a higher content of histamine in spleen could stimulate histamine receptors in mast cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, as well as T lymphocytes and explaining the decreased survival rate in OCT-3−/− mice possibly due to the functional changes of immunological cells.
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been suggested to have a cardioprotective effect against ischemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of EPO on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced by ligation of the coronary artery in Wistar rats. The rats with MI were randomly divided into untreated MI and two EPO-treated MI groups. EPO was administered subcutaneously by injection once a day for 4 days after MI at 5000 U/kg or 3 times a week for 4 weeks at 1000 U/kg. Five days after MI, EPO prevented the increase in activated caspase 3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and transcriptional activation of activator protein-1 in non-infarcted myocardium. Four weeks after MI, left ventricular weight, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and left ventricular dimension were increased, and ejection fraction and E wave deceleration time were decreased. EPO significantly attenuated this ventricular remodeling and systolic and diastolic dysfunction. In addition, EPO significantly attenuated the interstitial fibrosis and remodeling-related gene expression in non-infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, EPO significantly enhanced angiogenesis and reduced apoptotic cell death in peri-infarcted myocardium. In conclusion, when administered after MI, EPO prevents cardiac remodeling and improves ventricular function with enhanced angiogenesis and reduced apoptosis.
The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mediates the amplification of Ca2+ signaling and catecholamine release via the involvement of FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs)/ryanodine receptor (RyR) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. cADPR induced Ca2+ release in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells and this was blocked by FK506 and rapamycin, ligands for FKBPs; 8Br-cADPR, a competitive antagonist for cADPR; and antibody for FKBP12/12.6, while it was enhanced by cyclosporin A. Ryanodine-induced Ca2+ release was not affected by 8Br-cADPR and was remarkably enhanced by FK506, rapamycin, cyclosporin A, and cADPR. FK506 binds to FKBP12.6 and removes it from RyRs, but cADPR did not affect the binding between FKBP12.6 and RyR. In intact chromaffin cells, 8Br-cADPR, FK506, and rapamycin, but not cyclosporin A attenuated the sustained intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) rise induced by acetylcholine (ACh). 8Br-cADPR, FK506, and SK&F 96365 reduced the Mn2+ entry stimulated with ACh only when Ca2+ was present in the extracellular medium. 8Br-cADPR, FK506, and rapamycin concentration-dependently inhibited the ACh-induced catecholamine (CA) release. Here, we present evidence that FKBP12.6 associated with RyR may be required for Ca2+ release induced by cADPR in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. cADPR-mediated Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum in ACh-stimulated chromaffin cells is coupled with Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane which is essential for ACh-stimulated CA release.
In conventional relative gene expression analysis (Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization), housekeeping genes such as the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin genes, whose expression levels are considered stable, have been used as control genes for normalization of RNA quantitation. However, it has been reported that the expression levels of these two control genes are affected by ischemia. Therefore, we have been searching for novel control genes whose expression levels are stable in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia. Using the GeneChip Mu6500 array set, we monitored the expression levels of approximately 6000 murine genes in the mouse hippocampus during 24 h of ischemia-reperfusion. To select stable genes, we applied the restricted criterion of a 1.5-fold change in expression level as the threshold. By adding statistical analysis with this criterion, we identified 10 genes as candidates for control genes from the GeneChip data. In this criterion, GAPDH and β-actin genes were not included in the 10 genes as candidates for control genes. The present findings might be relevant to the use of control genes in quantitation of RNA, particularly in the study of mouse transient forebrain ischemia.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and plasma from guinea pig using mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for guinea-pig IgE. Mouse monoclonal antibodies were raised against purified IgE protein. The ELISA was performed using a combination of two anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies. One antibody was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the other was coated on polystyrene wells. Purified guinea-pig IgE was used as the standard material. The validity of the ELISA was confirmed by precision, dilution, recovery, and interference tests. The range of detection was 3.1 – 800 ng of IgE mass per mL of serum and plasma. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.6% and 5.7%, respectively, or less. The recovery test showed variation only between 92.1% and 111.8%, and the anticoagulants showed noninterference with the IgE assay. The mean serum IgE mass concentration in OVA-sensitized guinea pigs was 29438 ng/mL, and it was 48.6 ng/mL in normal guinea pigs. The present ELISA is useful and practical for specific measurement of the guinea-pig IgE, and it is surmised that it would be suitable for use in allergological and pharmacological research.
A brief exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces severe deterioration of primary cultured neurons in vitro. We have investigated a link between the H2O2-induced neuronal death and Ca2+-permeable TRPM2 channels regulated by ADP-ribose (ADPR). In cultured cerebral cortical neurons from fetal rat, TRPM2 proteins were detected at cell bodies and neurite extensions. Application of H2O2 to the cultured neurons elicited an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) caused by Ca2+ influx and the Ca2+-dependent neuronal death in a similar concentration range. Molecular cloning of TRPM2 cDNA from rat brain revealed several differences in amino acid sequences within the Nudix box region as compared with those of human and mouse TRPM2. ADPR-induced current responses, H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx, and H2O2-induced cell death were induced in human embryonic kidney cells heterologously expressing rat TRPM2. Treatment of cultured neurons with small interfering RNA against rat TRPM2, which efficiently suppressed immunoreactive TRPM2 content and the H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx, significantly inhibited H2O2-induced neuronal death. These results suggest that TRPM2 plays a pivotal role in H2O2-induced neuronal death as redox-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channels expressed in neurons.
The repeated manipulation of feeding schedule has a marked influence on the chronopharmaological aspects of many drugs. In this study, we investigated the role of endogenous glucocorticoid in the mechanism by which restricting the feeding time modulates the analgesic effect of morphine. Male ICR mice were housed under a light-dark cycle (light on from 07:00 to 19:00) with food and water ad libitum or under repeated time-restricted feeding (feeding time from 09:00 to 17:00) for 2 weeks before the experiment. Under the ad libitum feeding, mRNA levels of μ-opioid receptor and its binding capacity in mouse brainstem increased around the early dark phase, following the 24-h variation in circulating glucocorticoid levels. As a consequence, potent analgesic effects of morphine were observed in mice injected with the drug during the dark phase. Daily restricted feeding modulated the time-dependency of μ-opioid receptor function, accompanied by the alteration of the rhythm in circulating glucocorticoid levels. Under the time-restricted feeding, potent analgesic effects of morphine were found in mice injected with the drug during the light phase. Because the manipulation of feeding schedule was unable to produce the food-entrainable rhythm in the expression of μ-opioid receptor in the brainstem of adrenalectomized mice, endogenous rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion seems to be involved in the mechanism by which the time-restricted feeding modulates the analgesic effects of morphine.
Resveratrol, a stilbene polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, produces vasorelaxation in both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent manners. The mechanisms by which resveratrol causes vasodilatation are uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) of endothelium-independent resveratrol-induced vasorelaxation in human internal mammary artery (HIMA) obtained from male patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery and to clarify the contribution of different K+ channel subtypes in resveratrol action in this blood vessel. HIMA rings without endothelium were precontracted with phenylephrine. Resveratrol induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the HIMA. A highly selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, glibenclamide, as well as nonselective blockers of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels, tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin, did not block resveratrol-induced relaxation of HIMA rings. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), non selective blocker of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels, and margatoxin that inhibits KV1.2, KV1.3, and KV1.6 channels abolished relaxation of HIMA rings induced by resveratrol. In conclusion, we have shown that resveratrol potently relaxed HIMA rings with denuded endothelium. It seems that 4-AP- and margatoxin-sensitive K+ channels located in smooth muscle of HIMA mediated this relaxation.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) stimulates tissue healing and centrifugation is the only method for PRP preparation. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method to separate platelets without centrifugation. We used 16 polymers of different chemical characteristics and mixed each polymer with fresh whole blood containing anticoagulant citrate-dextrose. Then, we observed blood cell separation. Focusing on the effective polymers and comparing our method with the conventional centrifugation method, we examined platelet recovery rate and P-selectin expression, which represents platelet activation. Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) and poly-L-aspartic acid (PAA) separated platelets efficiently; however, these polymers activated platelets. On the contrary, poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB), which has phosphorylcholine residues mimicking a cellular membrane molecule, separated platelets moderately and the PMB-separated platelets were nearly inactive compared to the separation with the ordinary centrifugation and PGA. Conclusively, the present experiments demonstrated that without centrifugation platelets can be separated from whole blood with some water-soluble polymers, such as PGA, PAA, and PMB, and that PMB has an advantage not to activate platelets.
We evaluated the antiemetic effect of zacopride, a potent 5-HT3-receptor antagonist with 5-HT4-receptor agonist properties, on delayed emesis caused by cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) in ferrets, compared with granisetron, a selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist. Multiple intravenous injections of zacopride at 1 mg/kg, a dose that completely inhibited acute emesis caused by cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.v.), significantly reduced delayed emesis. Granisetron (3.2 mg/kg) also reduced delayed emesis but this failed to reach statistical significance. The present study suggests that a combined 5-HT3-receptor antagonist / 5-HT4-receptor agonist, like zacopride, may be useful against both acute and delayed emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy.
Glycoprotein (GP) Ia/IIa plays a key role in platelet function by acting as a primary receptor for subendothelial collagen, thereby contributing to arterial thrombosis. In this study, we found that the expression level of platelet GPIa/IIa among Taiwan Chinese varies over sixfold and this difference relates either to the GPIa gene 807 C/T dimorphisms or the appearance of BglII restriction sequence within intron G. This is the first study to demonstrate the wide variation of platelet GPIa/IIa density in an Oriental population and its correlation to the GPIa gene polymorphisms. These results provide useful tools for predicting platelet GPIa/IIa density of Chinese.