Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1347-8648
Print ISSN : 1347-8613
ISSN-L : 1347-8613
Volume 99 , Issue 4
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
Current Perspective
  • Reiko Nagashima, Chie Sugiyama, Masanori Yoneyama, Kiyokazu Ogita
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 301-306
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 03, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Differential regulation of gene expression by transcription factors is widely viewed as one of the principal mechanisms guiding development. Although numerous DNA binding proteins have been identified in various tissues, the role of individual transcription factors in the differentiation of specific cell groups, such as those populating the inner ear, is just beginning to be elucidated. It is known that transcription factors are induced in response to many signals that lead to cell growth, differentiation, inflammatory responses, the regulation of apoptosis, and neoplastic transformation. There are various transcription factors in the cochlea of the inner ear. These include activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B, glucocorticoid receptor, and so on. Based on recent reports and our investigation, in this article we review possible functions and expression of these transcription factors.
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Critical Review
  • Akihiko Wada, Hiroki Yokoo, Toshihiko Yanagita, Hideyuki Kobayashi
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 307-321
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In addition to the well-documented mood-stabilizing effects of lithium in manic-depressive illness patients, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and humans have increasingly implicated that lithium can be used in the treatment of acute brain injuries (e.g., ischemia) and chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, tauopathies, and Huntington’s disease). Consistent with this novel view, substantial evidences suggest that depressive illness is not a mere neurochemical disease, but is linked to gray matter atrophy due to the reduced number/size of neurons and glia in brain. Importantly, neurogenesis, that is, birth/maturation of functional new neurons, continues to occur throughout the lifetime in human adult brains (e.g., hippocampus); the neurogenesis is impaired by multiple not-fully defined factors (e.g., aging, chronic stress-induced increase of glucocorticoids, and excitotoxicity), accounting for brain atrophy in patients with depressive illness and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic treatment of lithium, in agreement with the delayed-onset of mood-stabilizing effects of lithium, up-regulates cell survival molecules (e.g., Bcl-2, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Grp78, Hsp70, and β-catenin), while down-regulating pro-apoptotic activities (e.g., excitotoxicity, p53, Bax, caspase, cytochrome c release, β-amyloid peptide production, and tau hyperphosphorylation), thus preventing or even reversing neuronal cell death and neurogenesis retardation.
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Full Papers
  • Maria J. Tutor-Crespo, Jesús Hermida, J. Carlos Tutor
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 323-328
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: November 26, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The action of some anticonvulsant drugs as the causal agents of attacks of acute porphyria has been widely documented in the literature. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of these drugs on the urinary excretion of porphyrins in non-porphyric subjects. In a sample of 82 epileptic patients treated with phenobarbital (n = 54), phenytoin (n = 64), carbamazepine (n = 33), and valproate (n = 8), the daily doses were expressed according to a drug score that would reflect the capacity of these drugs as enzymatic inducers when administered in polytherapy. A significantly increased urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (DGA) and porphyrins was found in this group of patients (P<0.001), with coproporphyrin being the major fraction in all cases (>60%). Urinary DGA had a highly significant correlation with the drug score (r = 0.783, P<0.001); however, no significant correlations were found between the urinary porphyrins and DGA (r = 0.005) or the drug score (r = 0.053). Neither was any significant relationship found between the urinary porphyrins and the serum activity of 5'-nucleotidase (r = 0.066) or the presence of a cholestasis objectivized through the presence of the isoform of γ-glutamyltransferase with β-globulins electrophoretic mobility. However, in a group of 10 patients a significant correlation was found between the urinary excretion of porphyrins and β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (r = 0.790, P<0.01). Therefore, it does not appear that the liver enzyme induction, or even a subclinical cholestasis, produced by the antiepileptic drugs administered to these patients may serve to explain the increase in the urinary excretion of porphyrins. A possible renal origin is proposed for the increase of urinary porphyrins in these cases.
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  • Masayuki Uchida, Orie Mogami
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 329-334
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: November 26, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aimed to evaluate whether milk whey culture with Propinibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 (milk whey culture), which has been reported to have Bifidogenic activity, is effective on the colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. For the induction of colitis, the colon was clamped and 0.1 M TNBS in 35% ethanol was injected into the luminal side of the clamped portion under pentobarbital anesthesia. From the next day of colitis induction, milk whey culture was administered orally at doses of 1 and 3 g/kg, twice a day for 9 days. On the 10th day, rats were sacrificed and ulcer size was measured. Milk whey culture significantly accelerated the healing of the colitis in a dose-dependent manner, but culture medium did not. To clarify the active substance, the effects of propionic acid and acetic acid contained in milk whey culture was tested. Sodium propionate significantly accelerated the healing of TNBS-induced colitis, but sodium acetate did not. The above results show that milk whey culture may become a useful prebiotic for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease and that propionic acid may be one of the active substances contained in milk whey culture.
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  • Atsushi Yamauchi, Takanobu Ichimiya, Kouichi Inoue, Yukie Taguchi, Nao ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 335-341
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 03, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The role of the susceptibility of cells and the pharmacokinetics of MTX on the time-dependent change of methotrexate (MTX) pharmacologic action in HL-60 (human leukemia cell) was investigated from the viewpoints of the rhythm of DNA synthesis. The highest activity of MTX was observed at the time when DNA synthesis, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) activity, DHFR content, and DHFR mRNA content increased and the lowest activity was observed at the time when they decreased. There were significant time-dependent changes in MTX efflux. The result corresponded to the rhythm in MTX activity. The present study suggests that the time-dependent change of MTX activity is caused by a change in the sensitivity of cells and the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Therefore, the choice of dosing time associated with cell rhythmicity may help to achieve rational chronotherapeutics, increasing therapeutic effects.
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  • Takao Fujimura, Hiroyuki Sakuma, Satoko Konishi, Tomoya Oe, Naomi Hoso ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 342-352
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: November 26, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor implicated in regulating adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and in mediating the action of the insulin sensitizing anti-diabetic thiazolidinedione (TZD) compounds. [3-(2,4-Dichlorobenzyl)-2-methyl-N-(pentylsulfonyl)-3-H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamide] (FK614) is a structurally novel PPARγ agonist that demonstrates potent anti-diabetic activity in vivo. Herein, we describe that FK614 is a selective PPARγ ligand with specific transactivation properties that are dependent upon the context of coactivators. FK614 dissociates the corepressors NCoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) and SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors) from PPARγ as effectively as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, but can also differentially induce a ligand specific interaction of PPARγ with coactivators. The amount of CBP (CREB-binding protein) and SRC-1 (steroid receptor coactivator-1) recruited by FK614 was less than that induced by rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, but FK614 caused similar PGC-1α (PPARγ coactivator-1α) recruitment as these compounds. As a consequence of these ligand-specific differences in the strength of ligand-type specific interactions of PPARγ and coactivators, FK614 functions as a partial or full agonist for transcriptional activation depending upon the amount of specific coactivators in cells following overexpression. In conclusion, FK614 is a novel, non-TZD type, and selective PPARγ modulator whose pharmacological properties are distinct from rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.
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  • Takashi Ono, Kazuko Goto, Shiro Takagi, Shigeo Iwasaki, Hirotsugu Koma ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 353-363
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: November 26, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    OC-108 is a novel sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids, containing aluminum potassium sulfate (alum) and tannic acid as its main ingredients. In clinical studies, OC-108 injection therapy for severe internal hemorrhoids proved to be highly effective, not only on bleeding but also for prolapse, and the effects were comparable to hemorrhoidectomy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mode of action by administrating the agent s.c. to mice and rats. In response to OC-108 injection, inflammation with necrosis developed at an early stage followed by granuloma formation with fibrosis at the injection site. Necrotic debris with aluminum was observed in the granuloma for a long period. Alum, as well as OC-108, induced vascular permeability, leukocyte infiltration, and granuloma formation; however, tannic acid did not. On the other hand, tannic acid inhibited leukocyte infiltration induced by alum but did not inhibit granuloma formation. These results indicate that OC-108 causes sclerosis and retraction of hemorrhoids through fibrosis associated with granulomatous chronic inflammation induced by the main active ingredient alum and that the adjunct ingredient tannic acid reduces excessive acute inflammation induced by alum.
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  • Fumiaki Saito, Satoshi Matsusaka, Hirohisa Kato, Ichiro Wakabayashi
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 364-372
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 03, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of daunorubicin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inducible-type nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in macrophages. LPS-stimulated iNOS expression and NO production were significantly inhibited in alveolar macrophages from rats administrated daunorubicin (4 mg/kg body weight per day) for 5 consecutive days. Incubation of macrophages with daunorubicin at 1 μM but not at 0.1 and 0.5 μM significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production and iNOS induction. Activation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) by LPS was markedly attenuated in both macrophages isolated from in vivo daunorubicin-treated rats and those incubated in vitro with daunorubicin at 1 μM. ERK activation, iNOS induction, and NO production following LPS stimulation were all markedly inhibited in the presence of U0126, an ERK inhibitor. The viability of macrophages was decreased by incubation with daunorubicin at 0.5 and 1 μM, while treatment of rats with daunorubicin did not affect viability of macrophages isolated from the rats. These results suggest that in vivo treatment of rats with daunorubicin attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression of macrophages through inhibition of ERK activation, while inhibition of iNOS induction by in vitro incubation with daunorubicin may be mainly due to its cytotoxicity.
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  • Yuji Omiya, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Mitsutoshi Yuzurihara, Mikio Murata, Masa ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 373-380
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: November 26, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, the antinociceptive effect of shakuyakukanzoto was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice to certify its analgesic effect on diabetic patients. Shakuyakukanzoto (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the nociceptive threshold in diabetic mice. The antinociceptive activity of shakuyakukanzoto in diabetic mice was not antagonized by β-funaltrexamine, naltrindole, or nor-binaltorphimine. The increased antinociceptive activity of (1.0 g/kg, p.o.) in diabetic mice was abolished by yohimbine (15 μg, i.t.), but not by NAN-190 (1 μg, i.t.), methysergide (15 μg, i.t.), or MDL-72222 (15 μg, i.t.). In shakuyakukanzoto diabetic mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (20 μg, i.t.) chemically lesioned noradrenergic pathways, shakuyakukanzoto (1.0 g/kg, p.o.) failed to exhibit an antinociceptive effect. Furthermore, the antinociceptive activity induced by norepinephrine (0.06 – 2 μg, i.t.) was markedly more potent in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice at the same dose. These results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of shakuyakukanzoto in diabetic mice is not mediated by the opioid systems and that this effect appears via selective activation of the spinal descending inhibitory α2-adrenergic systems without activating the serotonergic systems. The spinal α2-adrenoceptor-mediated analgesic mechanism was enhanced in diabetic mice, suggesting that shakuyakukanzoto exhibits its effect by activating the descending noradrenergic neurons.
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  • Zhong Qiu Liu, Zhi Hong Jiang, Kelvin Chan, Hua Zhou, Yuen Fan Wong, Z ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 381-391
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 03, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Chieh-Hsi Wu, Chih-Wen Chen, Ho-Chih Chen, Weng-Cheng Chang, Min-Ji Sh ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 392-399
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The pathological mechanism of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty-induced restenosis has been attributed to outgrowth of vascular smooth muscle cells. Pretreatment with antioxidants has been shown to reduce restenosis. Magnolol, an active compound of Magnolia officinalis, has exhibited approximately 1,000 times more potent antioxidant effects than alpha-tocopherol. In this study, we demonstrate, using cytometric analysis, an approximate 61% reduction of smooth muscle cells progressing to the S-phase by 0.05 mg/ml of magnolol. A BrdU incorporation assay also showed a significant reduction (73%) of DNA synthesis using 0.05 mg/ml of magnolol. The protein level of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen was suppressed by approximately 48% using 0.05 mg/ml of magnolol. This was in agreement with the promoter activity of nuclear factor-kappa B, which was also attenuated by 0.05 mg/ml of magnolol. Since receptor interacting protein and caspase-3 protein expression levels were both increased by magnolol in a dose-dependent manner, the apoptotic pathway may mediate the inhibition of cell growth. Our finding that malondialdehyde formation was significantly inhibited by 0.05 mg/ml of magnolol further supported the antioxidant effect of magnolol. These studies suggest that magnolol might be a potential pharmacological reagent in preventing balloon injury-induced restenosis.
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  • Naoki Imajo, Saori Matsui, Yumiko Yasui, Nobuaki Matsui, Nobuyuki Fuku ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 400-407
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Patients with high serum immunoglobulin E levels were reported to be protected against sudden death during acute myocardial infarction. The protection mechanism might be attributed to the facilitation of histamine release from sensitized mast cells; however, this remains to be clarified. In this study, we examined the influence of sensitization on ventricular fibrillation (VF) induced by myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Guinea pigs were actively sensitized by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin in Bordetella pertussis vaccine. Hearts isolated from non-sensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were subjected to 30-min hypoxia / 30-min reoxygenation using a Langendorff apparatus. The amount of histamine released in the sensitized guinea-pig hearts was elevated, and the duration of VF was found to be reduced. The treatment with a histamine H2-receptor antagonist inhibited the reduction of VF duration. Treatment of the non-sensitized hearts with the histamine H2-receptor agonist resulted in the decrease of VF duration to the same level as that in the sensitized hearts. In conclusion, these results suggest that the risk of sudden death during myocardial H/R may be attenuated in the sensitized hearts and that histamine H2-receptor activation due to the released histamine may be involved in the protective effect.
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  • Yohji Fukazawa, Takehiko Maeda, Wakako Hamabe, Kazumasa Kumamoto, Yuan ...
    2005 Volume 99 Issue 4 Pages 408-414
    Published: 2005
    Released: December 17, 2005
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We evaluated the interaction between electroacupuncture (EA)-induced antinociception and an endogenous anti-analgesic system. EA was applied to the ST-36 acupoint for 45 min in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and pain thresholds were assessed by the hind-paw pressure test. EA produced a marked increase in pain thresholds and its antinociceptive action was completely reversed by naloxone (5 mg/kg). The analgesic effects of subcutaneous morphine (7 mg/kg) following EA stimulation were significantly attenuated. The attenuation of morphine analgesia was inversely proportional to the time intervals between EA termination and morphine injection, and the effect was not observed 120 min after EA stimulation. The analgesic effects of i.t. morphine (10 μg), but not i.c.v. morphine (25 μg), following EA were also attenuated. On the other hand, systemic morphine (7 mg/kg)-induced hyperthermia was not affected by EA. Moreover, i.c.v. morphine, but not i.t. morphine, produced hyperthermia. The i.c.v. morphine-induced hyperthermia was not affected by EA, similar to i.c.v. morphine analgesia. These results suggest that the attenuation of morphine analgesia following EA, that is, the activation of an endogenous anti-analgesic system, is closely related to the activation of an analgesic system by EA and that the spinal cord plays a critical role in the activation of the endogenous anti-analgesic systems.
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