The karyotypes of Scilla peruviana, S. peruviana var. alba, S. permixta and S. ughii were analysed from the point of view of karyotype alteration. The former two have a similar karyotype, namely, 2n=16=2L+8M+6S. S. permixta has three kinds of karyotype, namely, 2n=16=2L+8M+6S, 2n=15=2L+8M+5S and 2n=14=2L+8M+4S. The first type has two satellited S3 chromosomes, the second only one S3 and the last has no satellited S3 chromosomes, but one of the medium M3 chromosome has a translocated S3 chromosome which has no satellite at the idstal end. This observation suggests that SAT-chromosomes are the result of such a translocation of other chromosomes as in S. permixta. It is also suggested that the secondary constrictions may indicate the process of cutting in chromosomes or the trace of simple or reciprocal translocations of chromosomes. S. ughii has various karyotypes, i.e., 2n=17=2L+8M+7S, 2n=19 =2L+9M+8S, 2n=20=3L+11M+6S, 2n=22=3L+11M+8S and seems to be of hybrid or triploid origin. The karyotype alterations such as fragmentation (cf. SATO 1935), elimination, translocation and hybridization after these alterations of chromosomes in Scilla support NAVASHIN'S dislocation hypothesis of evolution of chromosomes (cf. NAVASHIN 1932).
1. A hybrid is obtained by crossing the scarlet eggplant as female with Shina-daien, variety of the eggplant, as male, but the reciprocal crossing is completely unsuccessful. 2. The F1 hybrid is distinctly more vigorous than either parental form. It shows a greater resemblance to the scarlet eggplant than to the eggplant, except that the purple plant color of the eggplant is dominant over the green of the scarlet eggplant. 3. Under normal conditions the hybrid produces numerous short adventitious roots on the lower parts of the shoots like in the tomato. But we have never seen this characteristic in the parental forms. 4. The hybrid was proved to be completely male sterile, producing no fertile pollen whatever, and the ovules are also completely sterile. 5. After about the middle of September, small seedless fruits are produced. It seems that the ovaries of the hybrid grow into parthenocarpic fruits owing to the growth inhibiting action of the lower temperature in the season. 6. The haploid chromosome number was observed to be 12 in both the scarlet eggplant (Solanum integrifolium POIR.) and Shina-daien (S. Melongena L.). 7. The meiosis in PMC of the hybrid shows no irregularities up to the liberation of the microspores from the tetrad. Following liberation the microspores begin to disintegrate and all of them entirely degenerate, until only abortive pollen are found in the anthers.
These studies were conducted on the sandy seashore of Taito, Chiba Prefecture. We found that the soils there covered with vegetation usually had a very low salt content, namely, 0.003-0.006 per cent NaCl by weight referred to the dry weight of the soil. An exception, however, was found in a community of Carex Kobomugi OHWI, the soil of which contained 0.099 per cent NaCl and 0.015 per cent Na2SO4. The soils are strongly alkaline; the pH values as usually found in soils covered with vegetation being between 7.4 and 8.8. The lowest pH value (7.4) was found in vegetation 70 meters and more distant from the shore.