Anatomical characteristics on the leaves of four Carices are described in this paper, the remarkable points of each species are as follows. Carex accrescens OHWI: Spine cells are widely distributed in the uper epidermis, the margins and the under epidermis on the nerve. Protuberances occur sparsely in the upper epidermis on the nerve. Carex albata BOOTT: Hinge cells differ clearly from the epidermis on the mesophyll. Upper epidermal cells on the nerve are indistinct. Stomata spread sparcely. Carex arenicola FR. SCHMIDT: Upper epidermal cells on the mesophyll are narrow. Walls of the hinge cells are thick and rarely wavy. Carex cyperoides MURR.: All epidermal cells are long and wide. Protuberances are scattered in the upper epidermis on the nerve and the margins. Spine cells are found in the under epidermis on the midrib.
In der letzten Arbeit (1938). berichtete ich darauf, dass bei Dumortierahirsuta, einer Art von Lebermoosen, drei karyologischen Varietäten mit den Chromosomenzahlen, 9, 18 und 27, vorkommen, und dass diese Varietäten eigene Verbreitungsgebiete haben. Ich habe weitere Untersuchung ausgeführt, um zu erklären, auf welcher geologischer Formation diese Varietäten gefunden zu werden. Soweit ich bisjetzt untersucht habe, konnte die 9-chromosomige Varietät nur auf dem Kalksteine in den Kalkgebiete von Taisyaku (in der Provinz Hirosima) und Kusama (in der Provinz Okayama) gefunden werden. Die 27-chromosomige Varietät verbreitet sich aber weit in Japan-Hondo (Honsyu, Sikoku, Kyusyu und Yakusima), und sie wird nicht auf dem Kalksteine, sondern auf einigen anderen Arten von Gesteinen gefunden.
By the present linkage studies, a gene a5 for white flower with green stem was found, which has such an activity that its dominant gene produces colours in the corolla, as well as the known similar genes, A1 and A2, cooperating respectively with a gene R. The linkage studies were as follows: that is, a5; links to each one of crêpe (cp) for crêpy leaf and cordate (co) for cordate leaf of the cordate linkage group, the recombination frequency between a5 and the former being 37.6 percent, between a5 and the latter being 49.5 percent. And also a5 links to variegeted-2 (v2) of the same group, the recombination frequency being 44.3 percent. In addition to the known genes, dusky (dy) and duskish (dk), with which the dull coloured flower is concerned, a new gene dun (du) was found by the studies of a cross between a normal coloured flower and a white segregated from dull coloured flower. F1 plants from the cross was triply heterozygous in relation to genes, dy, du and a5, and there occurred coupling which has the recombination frequency of about 25 percent between a5 and du. Therefore, a segregation as if it shows repulsion between white flower and dull one, was given in F2. Thus, two genes, a5 and du came to belong to the cordate linkage group. According to the writer's opinion, it is possible to say that the coexistence of the dominant genes as, Ca, C, R, A, Dy, Dk and Du, is at least essential to the development of the normal pure colour in the corolla, and also among these gens Ca, C are supposed to concern with the production of chromogen, R, A with enzymes which have the rôle to formate anthocyanin pigments from chromogen, thus giving rise to the normal pure colour of flowers. The dominant genes, Dy, Dk and Du are complementary to each other for the manifestation of the normal pure coloured flower, having the activity to make the action of the genes, R, A develop fully. The writer intended to try the following supposition as to the activity of these dominant genes, Dy, Dk and Du. Probably these genes refer to pH which is responsible for the activity of the genes, R, A. Therefore, in the absence of these genes, the activity of the genes, R, A is too weak to formate abundantly anthocyanin pigments from the chromogen. Thus, the mixture of the some produced anthocyanin pigments with the unreacted chromogen results in the dull coloured.