Es wurde festgestellt, dass in Leuehtorganen bzw. in den daran ansechliessenden Organen von verschiedenen Leuchtorganismen ein Flavinderivat reichlich vorkommt. Es ist also wahrscheinlich, dass dieses Flavinderivat an dem von Oxyluciferin-Luciferin-System hervorgerufenen Vorgang beteiligt sein kann. Die umkehrbare Oxydoreduktion bei Oxyluciferin-Luciferin-System in vivo dürfte also. unter Anteilnahme von diesem Flavinderivat, wahrscheinlich Alloxazin-Adenin-Dinucleotid (AAD) und zwar im Vorhandensein von Aminosäure vonstatten gehen. Diese Beziehungen wurden wie folgt ausgedrückt: Es scheint uns, dass das sogen. Photophelein N. Harveys bei nicht leuchtenden Organismen, das durch Beifügung von einer aus Leuchtorganismen hergestellten Luciferase-Lösung das Leuchten hervorbringt, andere Substanz als das Luciferin und zwar etwa ein Flavinderivat, wie Alloxazin-Adenin-Dinucleotid darstellt, welches auf das in der Luciferase-Lösung enthaltene Oxyluciferin reduzierend einwirkt.
The relation of the endodermis depression and the water absorption of root will be interpretable by considering that the water equilibrium between the solution in the tube and its sorrounding cells varies according to the change of concentration of the solution.
Osmotic concentrations and NaCl contents of expressed vegetable saps of some halophytes and the conditions of the soils covered with their vegetations were investigated (osmotic concentrations were determined in cryoscopic method), with results as shown in the following table. As will be seen from the foregoing results, Salicornia herbacea is distinguished from the other plants under investigation not only by the highest osmotic concentration and the greatest amount of NaCl content of its sap but also by the highest salinity of the soil where it grows. From this we may conclude that among the investigated plants, Salicornia herbacea is the strongest, and Statice japonica, Suaeda maritima, and Suaeda japonica are less strong in their halophytic characters.
1.In the species of Spirogyra observed, the cells seem to go through the following four stages during the interval between one cell division and another: that is, (1) stage of nuclear division, (2) stage of nuclear movement (small cell stage), (3) stage of cell growth (stage of medium-sized cell), (4) resting stage (large cell stage). 2. In the same filament of Spirogyra, small cells must be younger than large cells. 3. In the small cells, the further the nucleus is apart from the center of the cell, the shorter the time elapsed after the division seems to be. 4. Cell divisions are found in the scattered portions of the filament of Spirogyra. 5. It appears that a cell division in one part of the filament induces divisions in the neighbouring cells in the same filament.
There are five different karyotypes in Agavaceae of Hutchinson, that is, (1) Yucca-Agave type (Yucca, Hesperoaloe, Agave, Furcraea), Beschorneria, Bravoa, Polyanthes, (2) Nolina type (Nolina, Dasylirion), (3) Phormium type, (4) Dracaena type (Dracaena, Cordyline, Sansevieria) and (5) Doryanthes type. These distinct types have some karyotypical resemblance with each other not only in the same family Agavaceae but also are similar to the other genera in allied families Liliaceae and Palmae. For example, Phormium. type (2n=32) is similar to Dracaena type (2n=38) in spite of different basic number and Nolina type (2n=36) also resembles abovementioned karyotypes of which chromosome complements have smaller sizes than that of Nolina type. Doryanthes type (2n=48) has four long and fourty-four short chromosomes and one arm of the long chromosome with median constriction may translocate to the short chromosome, so that two long chromosomes with subterminal constrictions (A chromosomes of Yucca-Agave type) may result and vice versa. Such karyotype alteration may explain the relation between the Yucca-Agave type and Doryanthes type, although a considerable difference is shown in the chromosome size. Yucca-Agave type (2n=60) is clearly distinguished from the three remaining types in Agavaceae, even though some karyotype alterations are taken into consideration for the present. The phylogeny of these types in Agavaceae was considered by the writer to be derived from the Liliaceous stock and developed further to Palmae. Accordingly five following lines are postulated based upon the karyotype analysis in these families and allies. (1) Eucomis (Scilleae) 2n=60=8A+8B+44C, Hosta (Hemerocallideae) 2n=60=8A+2B+50C→Yucca-Agave type 2n=60=10A+50C; (2) Ophiopogon (Ophiopogoneae) 2n=36=2A+18B+16C→Nolina type 2n=36=12A+24C→Trithrinax (Corypheae) 2n=36=8A+10B+18C; (3) Dianella (Dianelleae) 2n=32=8A+4B +200→Phormium type 2n=32=8A+24C→Cocos (Cocoineae) 2n=32=8A+24C; (4) Dracaena type 2n=38=4A+34C→Phoenix (Phoeniceae) 2n=36=4A+32C, Livistona (Corypheae) 2n=36=4A+32C, Oreodoxa (Areceae) 2n=38=2A+6B+30C; (5) Doryanthes type 2n=48=4A+44C, The last type has no similar karyotypes in both Liliaceae and Palmae, but karyotype of Lloydia (Tulipeae) 2n=24=4A+2B+18C seems to be most probable one when karyotype alteration is taken into consideration and also is similar to Yucca-Agave type (cf. Fig. 1). In short the writer clearly demonstrates the karyotype. affinity among these three families, Liliaceae, Agavaceae and Palmae. These results accord with the Hutchinson's system in monocotyledons and contradict the Engler's system.
1. We can find two forms in Porphyra variegata (Kjellman) Hus on the coast of Muroran, Hokkaido; one has a eosine-pink colour and the other a red-purple or crimson. Further, the former has usually a thinner frond than the latter. 2. These differences in colour and thickness of the frond are conspicuous even in the young plant of less than 1.5cm height, but no other distinctions between these two forms can be found. Moreover, the former is usually found in earlier season than the latter, for the one is found mainly from March to May and at least not in July or August, whereas the other is found from May to August. Consequently, these two forms appear to be ecological ones. 3. When the plant is still young, the frond is divided into similar halves by a longitudinal limiting line. One half gradually becomes yellow and soon begins to disintegrate from its margin and then falls off entirely at maturity. The other half has a deeper colour and grows more rapidly at the marginal part opposite to the longitudinal limiting line, especially after disintegration of the yellowish half, and recurves unilaterally, taking a large comma-shape. 4. The former yellowish part of the frond represents an antheridial area and the latter deeper coloured is sporocarpic. Consequently, this species is apparently monoecious, although it was described as dioecious by Kjellman in his original description and he was followed by Hus, Ueda and other authors. 5. One antheridium divides into 32 or 64 antherozoids, according to the formula, 32 (a/4, b/4, c/2) or 64 (a/4, b/4, c/4?). 6. One sporocarp contains 8 or 32 carpospores after Hus and 16 carpospores after Ueda. The writer agrees with Ueda′s observation and the formula of division corresponds to 16 (a/2, b/2, c/4).
In Cephalotaxus drupacea Siebold et Zuccarini, by a division of a boby cell, two male gametes are formed. They are two cells of unequal size. The nuclei of these two cells are about the same in their appearance, but the one of the small cell is slightly smaller than the other. The gametes have no membrane on their surface. These results does not agree with Lawson′s report on the same species.
The archegonia of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don are formed as a complex in an apical part of the female gametophyte. In the outside of the archegonial complex a layer of poorly differentiated jacket cells is found. In the inside of the complex the sterile tissue as is found in Cunninghamia is not formed. Two male gametes are formed by a division of a body cell. Both gametes formed in this way are equal in size and shape, In 1943, the fertilization took place in the end of June in Sendai. As a result of the division of a fertilized nucleus the proembryo of 16 cells is formed. The components of an embryo system are as follow : the open cells, the prosuspensor, the massive secondary suspensors and embryo propers. The separation of the prosuspensor cells in the early stages is not observed. On this point the writer′s observation does not agree with Buchholz′s result. The cleavage polyembryony always takes place. The rosette embryo is rarely formed by the division of the separated prosuspensor cells having no embryonic cell at their apex. The type of embryogeny in Cryptomeria is considered to be the same as those of Taiwania and Taxodium but totally differs from that of Cunninghamia.
The male gametes and embryogeny of Cunninghamia Konishii Hayata is described. Two male gametes are formed immediately before the fertilization by a division of a body cell. Both gametes formed in this way are equal in size and shape. In 1940 the fertilization took place in the middle of July in Sin-Taiheizan, Formosa. In general the proembryogeny of this species agrees with that of C. lanceolata Hooker. In the stage of the suspensor elongation the following components are found : the open cells, the prosuspensor, the primary suspensor, each of which is consisted of two cells running parallel, the cap cells and the embryo initial cells. (Perhaps the massive secondary suspensor will be formed later.) The cleavage polyembryony is clearly found. The embryogeny of two species in Cunninghamia (C. Konishii & C. lanceolata) differs totally from those of Cryptomeria, Taiwania and Taxodium.
The early embryogeny of Abies firma Siebold et Zuccarini is described. In 1942 the fertilization took place in early July in Sendai. The proembryo formed in the basal part of the archegonium is composed of sixteen cells which are arranged in four rows each consisting of four cells. In these tiers of the proembryo, the uppermost is the open cell, the second the rosette cell, the third the primary suspensor and the lowest the emrbyonic cell. After the elongation of the primary suspensor each cell of the embryonic tier divides independently to form a mass of embryonic cells. In the next stage the elongation of the embryonal tube takes place in these masses of embryonic cells. In some cases (about 28%) the separation of the embryonic cell masses in their development takes place. In such cases the cleavage polyembryony is found later. The components of an embryo are the open cells, the rosette cells, the primary suspensor, the massive secondary suspensor and the embryo propers. In the early growing stage of the embryo the existence of the apical cell in each embryonic units is always found. On this point the writer′s result is opposed to the Buchholz′s opinion on the same genus. Slightly developed rosette embryos are also sometimes found.