In Japanese Islands; Honsyu, Sikoku, Kyusyu, Hokkaido, Kuriles and Saghalien, there are 21 species of Euphrasia. The author divides these species into 4 groups (Grex) by the characters of the calyx which may be the best representatives of many distinguishable characters. The calyx of Euphrasia is partited to 4 lobes either in equal degree (A) or in unequl degree (a), and is either longer (B) or shorter (b) than the half length of the corolla. The first group (Grex E. Maximowiczii) has the character AB and is distributed widely all over the Islands. The second group (Grex E. Yabeanae) has the character Ab and is distributed in the upper region of the high mountains. The third group (Grex E. Makinoi) has the character aB and is distributed in the mountains facing the Pacific Ocean. The fourth group (Grex E. japonicae) has the character ab and is distributed in the mountains facing the Japan Sea. The species belonging these groups are described with number in the text, and its distributions are indicated by the same number in the map inserted in the text.
Chromatium weissei Party Winogradsky, developing in the swamp in Yumoto, Nikko, had been isolated, and the most suitable cultural conditions for its growth were examined. 1) The culture solution, prepared from 0.1% Na2S, 0.1% NaHCO3, 0, 05% (NH4)2SO4, 0.0 4% K2HPO4 and 0, 03% MgSO47H2O, was found for the organisms. 2) The pH value of media, suitable for the growth of the organisms was at 6.8. 3) The suitable temperature for its growth was about 20°C. 4) The strength of light beneficial for its growth was 330lux. Its flagella is polar and tufted, and its body is covered with gelatinous membrane. It turns into various irregular forms in old culture.
Helianthus tuberosus and Ipomosa edulis grown under the various amount of potassium supply were used. The potassium content in the lamina, petiole, root, tuber, upper and lower parts of stem was determined, and its values were given by mg. per 1cm3 powder volume of the tissues, because it has been proved by R. Kôketsu that the physiological concentration of substance in the plant can be more reasonably expressed by this“powder method”than by the amount per unit fresh weight, dry weight, or unit area of the leaf. And the distribution of potassium in the guard-cells, palisade and spongy parenchyma and epidermis of the leaf was studied by microchemical method, too. In the present paper were discussed also the relationship between the potassium content of plant organs and the pH value, refractive index, and electric conductivity of the tissue fluids, which had been studied in author′s previous researches. The important points be summarized as follows: 1) There were significant direct proportional relations between the amount of supplied potassium and potassium content, pH value and electric conductivity, and inverse proportional relation between potassium content and refractive index in every plant organs. 2) Though the potassium content of the every organs varied according to the amount of supplied potassium, the content of the leaf was always higher than that of other organs, and that of the tuber was always the lowest. 3) The ratio of potassium content of the leaf to other organ became greater and greater as the supplied amount of potassium increased. 4) It was shown that potassium may move from the leaf to another organ, especialy to the reserve organ, on account of the concentration gradient between them. 5) The potassium content of leaves reduced notably with age, and the decrease was more remarkable in the low potassium than in the high-potassium cultures. 6) Potassium was more concentrated in palisade parenchyma than spongy parenchyma, more in the upper cell-layer of the palisade parenchyma than lower layer of the same parenchyma; and these differences in potass um content between these tissues were emphasized by potassium deficiency; i. e., there was a tendency that greatest concentration of potassium occurred in the tissue exposed to sunlight most intensively. From these facts it is suggested that potassium may participate in photosynthesis.
1) When only auxin a exsists in the Avena coleoptile the rate of the respiration reaches its maximum when the pH is around 3.2 and 7.5, but the growth rate reaches its heighest point around 3.5. 2) When indoleacetic acid is added from outside to the Avena coleoptile the respiration of the coleoptile is promoted and reaches its maximum when the pH is 3.5; but the pH is 7.5 no promotion is to be seen. 3) The respiration promoting effect of the indoleacetic acid is at its heighest when its concentration is 10-5mol and its promoting effect is parallel to its growth promoting effect as far as its concentration is concerned. 4) It seems that the Avena coleoptile has two systems of respiration, one, which has its optimal H+-concentration at pH 3.5, has an influence on the growth of the coleoptile, and another, which has its optimal H+-concentration at pH 7.5, has no influence on the growth of the coleoptile.
It is a well known fact, that on germination of seeds reserve-proteins undergo decomposition to give amino acids. In order to obtain some insight into this process, we have preliminarily examined the protein-digesting power of ungerminated seeds of following plants: Glycins soya, Canavalia ensiformis, Cucurbita moschata, Ricinus communis, Arachis hypogaea, Pisum sativus, Sesamum indicum, Prunuspersica, Vicia Faba, Arctium Lappa and Zea Mays. Among these the castor bean has proved itself to be more proteolytically active, so that it was powdered, and left to undergo autolysis in toluene water at 25°C during two weeks. The autolysate was concentrated invacuo, and acetone was added, whereby a precipitate having high proteolytic activity was obtained. The enzymic specificity of this preparation was tested with the following substrates: glycyl-d, l-asparagine, l-leucyl-glycyl-glycine, benzoyl-glycine, benzoyl-glycyl-glycine, and gelatin with referrence to hydrogen ion concentrations. Experiments show that the spermato-proteinase of Ricinus communis belongs to the category of papain proteinase and contains none of the enzymes, such as dipeptidase, asparaginase, aminoacylase, amino-polypeptidase and carboxypolypeptidase.