It has been ascertained by the author as well as by other investigators that there exist considerable differences in potassium content between individual leaves, even when these leaves are situated next to each other on the same stem. In consequence, it is evident that, in order to find exactly the diurnal variation in potassium content, comparison must be made on samples obtained at different time, not from the different leaves, but from one and the same leaf. Most of hitherto reported experiments are defective in this respect. In this work leaves of the following species were used: Ricinus communis, Gossypium Nanking, Helianthus tuberosus, Sagittaria trifolia var.sinensis and Ipomea edulis. Ricinus-leaf, which is divided palmately into 8-12 lobes, is particularly favorable for this experiment. After having been confirmed that there exist scarecely any difference in potassium content between individual lobes harvested at the same time from one and the same Ricinus leaf, the author has harvested six lobes one by one from one lamina at every four hours viz. 3, 7, 11 a. m., 3, 7, 11 p.m., and estimated the variation in potassium content successively. In the other 4 species, every lamina was divided into halves along the midrib, one half was harvested at the daytime (3p. m.), whereas the remainder-half at the nighttime (3a. m.), and the difference in the potassium content between them was measured. In this case, also, it has been confirmed beforehand that, when harvested at the same time the both halves belonging to one and the same lamina always show approximately equal values in the potassium content. However, the possibility is tot necessarily excluded, that cutting or harvesting of a part or a lobe of a lamina may have any influence upon the potassium content in the remaining parts or lobes of the leaf. In the case of Ricinus, in order to eliminate the error attributable to such a effect, six series of experiment were carried out such a way, that they start one by one at six different times, viz. 3, 7, 11 a.m., 3, 7, 11 p.m. It followed that at any time of measurement, there exists a set of six lobes differing each other in the order of harvesting, and the average of the values obtained from each of them was regarded as the value at that time. In the case of the other 4 species similar method was also adopted, and the average value of potassium content at the daytime or the nighttime was calculated. The potassium content in question was expressed by quotients K/V (mg/cm3), K/A (%) or K/W (%), where K, V, A and W represent amount of potassium, powder volume of dry matter, weight of ash and weight of dry matter respectively. The results obtained may be summarized briefly as follows: 1) Leaves of all test plants showed diurnal variation in potassium content 2) When expressed by K/V or K/A, potassium content increased slowly and attained to a maximum at 3 p.m. or thereabouts, just when temperature or sunlight intensity attained to its highest value. Then it was followed by a fall at night, an attained to a minimum at about 3 a.m., just when temperature attained almost to its lowest value. But, expressed by K/W, contrary results were obtained with respect to potassium content. The author admitts, however, that the diurnal variation of the potassium content can be more reasonably and exactly expressed by K/V or by K/A than by K/W, as it has been already confirmed by prof. Koketsu and others that the diurnal variation in V or A is far less than that of W. 3) In any case, the diurnal variation of potassium content in a leaf is not so great. 4) In the stem, root and tuber of Helianthus tubeeosus, it was shown that there exist little day-night-difference in potassium content.
The cells of potato tubers in the different seasonal periods required different plasmolysis times, when they were plasmolysed with a 0.5 mol glucose solution. In the physiologically active tuber, namely growing young tuber and sprouting old one in soil, it was estimated relatively short, about 2 hours. In the case of the resting tuber in the storage period, the time was relatively long, about 4 hours. Such difference is probably due to periodical change of colloidal state of protoplasm. Besides this seasonal variation, there were observed some other differences of plasmic natures according to the growth stages as shown in the followy table.
The phylogeny of karyotypes was investigated in lower plants i. e., flagellata, algae and fungi. The most primitive plants, bacteria and Cyanophyceae have no nuclei in strict sense and no chromosomes. The nuclei of Protozoa such as Vorticella and Stentor suggest the origin of chromosomes (Fig. 2). The most primitive nucleus seems to have two chromosomes in haploid number. A large number of fungi has lower chromosome number and especially Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes have two chromosomes in haploid number, while on the other hand, most algae have high chromosome number, especially Charophyta has many chromosomes, namely, from twelve to ca. 50 chromosomes in haploid number (of. Tab. 1). The most primitive type of Rhodophyceae, Bangia fusco-purpurea and Porphyra umbilicalis have also two chromosomes in haploid number and the other algae have higher chromosome number. There are three modes of metabolism, namely heterotrophic one assimilating organic substance and autotrophic metabolism of which one assimilates inorganic substance by means of photosynthesis and the other assimilates by chemosynthesis. Osborn and Komarov supported that the chemo-autotrophic metabolism was most primitive, while Oparin suggests the most primitive organism assimilates organic substance which is abundantly produced in such environment, and inorganic substance such as oxygen and carbon dioxide seems to occur more rarely than in present. If this opinion is true, the heterotrophic organism such as fungi may be more primitive than autotrophic one such as algae in the mode of metabolism. Such primitive condition is also observed in karyotype phylogeny (Tab. 1). In short, the parallelism between the mode of metabolism and karyotype phylogeny was clearly demonstrated in fungi and algae.
1) Important types of plant dispersion is Überdispersion, Unterdispersion, and nomale Dispersion, and they correspend in general heterogeneity, regularity or uniformity and homogeneity of vegetation respectively. But the concept of hemogeneity is decided by objects of investigation. 2) Plant homogeneity concists of I: individual homogeneity (h) and II: communal homogeneity (H): 1 floristic homogeneity, 2 vegetational homogeneity. 3) The relation between communal homogeneity and individual homogeneity of the constituents of a plant community is indicated by H=(ha+hb+......+hk)/k 4) We can calculate the value of h by means of degree of cover as well. But h by density is standard. 5) Homogeneity of distribution of plant position on the ground is less than the one being calculated by the length of internodes of horizontal underground shoots. 6) The fitness of the law of geometical progression of the population density (Motomura) to a plant community is a reflex of a communal homogeneity. But the law was denied at several vegetation which we had investigated.