1. The internodial cell of Chara can be divided into two or more fragments ofarbitrary length by means of a binding method. 2. The rate of the protoplasmic streaming is constant (78μ/sec. at 27°C) so far as the length of the cell fragment is over about 1mm, but under this limit the rate begins to decrease conspicuously. 3. The rate of the protoplasmic streaming is also affected by the width of the cell. 4. The ratio of the protoplasm volume to the cell volume, or the “protoplasm cell volume ratio” can be varied by means of centrifuging and binding method. The cell fragment which is unusually rich in protoplasm, or even the one which is filled entirely with protoplasm, can survive and grow, but it never shows active streaming until vacuoles develop to a certain extent.
The present author observed the effect of saponin solution upon Spirogyra cells. In 0.1 or 0.001 per cent solution cells suffered damage after 45-60minute, but in 0.0001 or 0.00001 per cent solution cells were not affected even after 40-60 hours. Chloroplasts of younger cells were coagulated in 0.001 per cent solution in 60 hours, and the cell sap which contain tannin substance diffused out of the cells. After 80-100 hours various figures of abnormalities were observed as shown in text-figures 1 (c, d) and 4. The chloroplast and cytoplasm were both protruded from the cells forming thin protubelances. These phenomena are supposed to be the effect of saponin, which changes the colloidal condition of the protoplasm and the cell wall.
The genus Microcampylopus agrees with the genus Campylopodium in general character. As already remarked by Dixon, it may be a question, whether Microcampylopus is worthy of full generic rank. According to Fleischer, Dixon, and Brotherus, etc. however, the important discrepancy between the two genera is in the characteristics of capsule. The capsules of Campylopodium have several stomatae on capsule-neck, whereas in Microcampylopus they lack stomatae. Differences between the two genera seem also to exist in the characteristics of spores. In Eastern Asia, Campylopodium euphorocladum has hitherto been recorded from Indo-Malay, the Philippines, Formosa, and Southern Japan. A specimen from Java agrees with Fleischer's description, especially in the presence of stomatae on capsule-neck and the minutely papillose spores. In the characteristics of spores, the specimen from Isl. Sakurajima (where it is found growing on volcanic rock), for the present the only locality in Japan, agrees well with the foregoing. Javanese specimen, but it bears stomatae rarely. While, the specimens from Mt. Posuey, Luzon, assigned by Brotherus to this species, and that from Mt. Taitum, Formosa by Cardot as well lack stomatae entirely. Furthermore, these specimens have golden yellow spores bearing large pellucid papillae on the suaface. Such a characteristic of spores was observed by Fleischer and Dixon on those of Microcampylopus subnanus. Therefore, the specimens from Mt. Posuey and Formosa may be not be referred to Campylopodium euphorocladum.