Wie oben die serologische Untersuchung der Anthoceroteen zeigt eine Verwandtschaft zu Hepaticae ais zu Musci. Bei den meisten Praparaten war die Prazipitation positiv in fast alien Beispielen. In den Hepaticae zeigten Marchantiales, Jungermanniales Anacrogynae und Jungermanniales Acrogynae die nahere Verwandtschaft in dieser Reihenfolge. In den Sphagnales und Andreaeales fielen die Reaktion negative aus. Zwei Arten von Bryales gaben etwas positive Resuitate. Man kann natiirlich nicht aus diesen wenigen Versuchesresuitaten einen verfriihten Schluss ziehen. Obschon die Struktur der Sporophyten von Anthoceroteen gut entwickelt ist, sired die Anthoceroteen nach meinen serologischen Versuchen vieimehr naher verwandt mit Hepaticae ais mit Musci, und es sei wenigstens zweckmassiger, sie ais den Vertreter einer Ordnung von Hepaticae einzuordnen als ihnen heute den gleichert Rang wie Musci und Hepaticae geben, wie es jetzt von meisten Autoren angenommen wird.
In the embryonic cell of a young leaf a bar-like plastid divides into two longitudinary, preceding the nuclear division, and the resulted daughter cells contain only one plastid respectively. In the almost completed leaf a cell of the mesophyll contains a round large plastid which divides into two, but the nucleus remains as it was, without dividing. When a cell contains many plastids as in the case of an epidermis-cell of the under-suaface of a leaf, its nucleus divides independently from the plastids. So the plastids are distributed at random into the resulted two daughter cells and the number of the plastids in each of the daughter cells soon becomes equal. These facts show that the plastid has its individuality and that it behaves independently from the nucleus. The expense for this study was partly defrayed by a grant from the Science Research Fund, Ministry of Education.
1) The activity of the extract from the copper-resistant cells to raise the viability of the sensitive cells in copper containg media depends solely on the presence in the extract of a substance (of substances) readily inactivated by the ribonuclease. The extract from sensitive cells does not practically contain the active substance. 2) The activity of the RNA moiety is not lost on heating at 100°C. for 1 hour.
ウシグソヒトヨ (Coprinus macrorhizus Rea f. microsporus Hongo) の野生子実体15個体についてそれぞれの性系統をしらべたが, 全く同一の性因子をもつていたのは2個体だけで他は全部互いに異るものであった。これらの性系統は性因子に関し二つの群に分れ, 両群の間の交配では接合が全くおこらなかった。また遠くへだたった個体間に一部共通の性因子が存在する場合があることも見出された。
1) Studies of cultivated barley varieties were made karyomorphologically using seventy-four varieties obtained from all over the world. Five karyotypes were distinguished regarding the forms of the “a” chromosomes as a1a1, a2a2, a3a3, a4a4, and a5a5. In these types, the remaining chromosomes show similar form in each homologous chromosome. Difference of genetic character can not be found among these karyotypes. 2) Number of varieties of each karyotype, including formerly reported wild barleys, decrease gradually from the a1a1 to the a5a5, namely; This tendency to decrease the number of variety seems to show the course of karyotype evolution in Hordeum, e, g. a1a1→a2a2→a3a3→a4a4→a5a5. Evolution course of karyotype in Hordeum is probable as follows; 3) Comparative studies of morphology of the “a” chromosomes among different karyotypes in barley varieties were exactly carried out in one-cells of F1 plants derived from the crossings between these differently typed varieties. From this study the relationship of absolute length of these “a” chromosomes become clear as follows ; a2<a1<a3<a4=a5.
This work is a study on light-sensitivity of germination investigated by using the seeds of six species of Japanese-grown tobacco which are Yellow, Daruma, Oo-Daruma, Suifu, Hatano and Kokubu. In this study, the following subjects were investigated. (1) How the degrees of light-sensitivity vary as the time of presoaking* proceeds. *-the time during which petri dishes containing seeds are laid in a dark incubator as described below. (2) How much light is required for obtaining the highest percentage of germination. (Light quantity will be expressed as meter-candle-second (MKS) Unit). Seeds were disseminated over the surface of agar (1.5% aqueous solution) in petri dishes. Immediately after that, these petri dishes were wrapped in thick black papers, then they were put into a dark incubator. Each petri dish was taken out from the incubator after a definit time (a respective different time was given for each dish), stripped off . its black covering paper and was exposed to a definit quantity of light. (A 200-watt Toki bulb was used as a source of light.) Then it was again wrapped in the same black paper and put back to the incubator. On the 8th day after exposing each petri dish was opened and germination percentage was counted. Thus the follwing results were obtained. 1. Without regard to light quantity, light sensitivity showed a pronounced maximum when the times of presoaking reached certain hours, viz., 36hrs. for Yellow and Daruma, 48hrs. for Oo-Daruma and Suifu, and 72hrs. for Kokubu, and Hatano at 22°C each. 2. In case seeds were exposed to a small quantity of light, after each presoaking hours are passed, the light sensitivity is decreasing for sometime. This decrease cannot be seen in seeds which were exposed to a large quantity of light. 3. As to the light quantity required for the maximum percentage of germination of Hatano, Suifu, Daruma and Oo-Daruma seeds, the shorter the time of presoaking is, the more light quantity is required, in case the time of presoaking is less than 24hrs. However, when the time of presoaking exceeds 36hrs., the maximum percentages can be obtained by 2, 400, 000 M.K.S. and a greater quantity is not needed. 4. The seeds of “Yellow” are extraordinary sensitive to light. They proved that benefical effect of light was largely depending upon the length of presoaking hours rather than upon the light quantity. The seeds of “Yellow” required only 100 M.K.S. for obtaining the maximum percentage of germination whenever the presoaking hours exceed 48hrs.. Besides, the author secured 79% germination after 48hrs. of presoaking by exposing them to light for a very few moment, (1, 500Lux, one-ninetieth second, 16.5 M.K.S.) whereas only very few of the seeds germinated in the darkness without such exposure.