Catalase and peroxidase activates during germination are as follows. When Vicia Faba seeds are soaked for 24 hours and are germinated in the saw-dust with temperature of 25°C, catalase and peroxidase activities increase rapidly in the root and bud at the beginning of germination. Catalase activity reaches a maximum after 2 days in the root and bud, and peroxidase activity reaches a maximum after 3 days in the root, and after 4 days in the buds, and then it decreases rapidly, afterwards remaining constant. On the other hand, catalase activity shows its maximum after 5 days in the cotyledon, and peroxidase activity exhibits its maximum after 6 days in the cotyledon, and then these two decrease rapidly. Catalase maximum activity is found prior to the appearance of peroxidase maximum activity.
1. A positive correlation is recognized, on the whole, between the quantity of starch formed in guard cells and the aperture of stoma in the solution of glucose-1-phosphate, but in plants in their habitat, the opening and closing of stoma do not correlate with the quantity of starch formed in guard cells. After these results, it is considered by the author that the opening and closing of stoma is not affected primarily by the formation of starch in guard cells. 2. Starch is formed more easily in guard cells than in mesophyll cells of leaves in the glucose-1-phosphate solution by the plants cultured in a dark room for more than ten days, but in the case of plants in natural conditions, starch is, on the contrary, more easily formed in the mesophyll cells than in guard cells. It is considered that these phenomena were brought about by the change of pH in the guard cells and mesophyll cells of leaves cultured in different conditions. 3. Formation of starch in guard cells in glucose-1-phosphate solution is checked by calcium and potassium ions and the former ion is more active than the latter, but these two ions do not influence upon the activity of phosphorylase in vitro. It is likely that calcium and potassium ions do not act directly on starch formation of phosphorylase, but these ions would change the permeability of cell and the colloidal system of protoplasm in vivo. 4. In general, the starch in guard cells is consumed by respiration in dark room, but in the case that the substratum contains glucose-1-phosphate, the formation of starch in guard cells is promoted in aerobic condition. In anaerobic condition, even when the substratum contains glucose-1-phosphate, starch is not formed in vivo, but in vitro starch is formed aerobically as well as anaerobically. The activity of phosphorylase is checked by KCN in vivo and in vitro, and it is considered in this case that KCN acts directly on phosphorylase than on respiration. From these results, it was tentatively considered that the existence of oxygen is not directly, but indirectly, necessary for the activity of phosphorylase.
1) Kresko de polentuboj kaj diversaj gvidhistoj por ili estas observitaj en stilusoj. 2) Estas du tipoj de gvidhistoj : trabor-tipo kaj ramp-tipo. En ti?, polentuboj kreskas en la histo, kaj en tic ci, ili kreskas sur la histo. 3) Diversaj tipoj de stilusoj kaj gvidhistoj estas montrataj en fig. 2 kaj 3. Ekzemple: lilioj havas trabor-tipajn gvidhistojn, kaj petunioj havas ramp-tipajn. 4) Kaneloj en la gvidhisto gvidas polentubojn al ovoloj de stigmo. Gvidsubstanco helpas polentubojn por enpenetri en la stigmon, sed ne efikas al ilia posta kresko en la stiluso. 5) Mi komprenas ke la gvidado de polentuboj estas ka?zata de parta akcelado por membrankrei?o en la tubopinto.
1) The chromosomes of 6 species of genus Polytrichum have been investigated. The results obtained are shown in table 1 and figs. 1-31. 2) In Pol. Alpinum and Pol. Piliferum have been found the sex-chromosomes; the largest heterochromosome of female and of male gametophytes of those species are sex-chromosomes X and Y respectively. The karyotypes of those 2 species are _?? n=7=V(X)+3V+2J+m(h), _?? n=7=V(Y)+3V+2J+m(h). 3) The karyotypes of the other 3 species (Pol. Attenuatum _??, Pol. Commune _??_, Pol. Juniperinum _??_) are similar in the chromosome complements; n=7=V(H) 3V +2J+m(h). 4) Pol. Yezoense is monoecious and a diploid species in this genus, having two sets of chromosomes of the monoploid species. The largest two heterochromosomes (H) of this species are presumed to be the sex-chromosomes X and Y, after a careful comparison of their morphology and heteropycnosis to that of the sex-chromosomes of the monoploid species above mentioned. The karyotype of this species is n=14=2V(X, Y) +6V+4J+2m(h).