1.Karyotype studies were made on eight species and two varieties in Ranunculaceae. The results obtained are as follows: Anemone hupehensis var joponicaA. stoloniferaA. stolonifera var. plenaA. virginiana }K(2n)=16=8Am+2Bsm +2Cst+2Dst1+2tDst2 A. nikoensisK(2n) =16=8Am+2Bsm+2tCst+2tCst+2tDst1+2tDst2A. coronaria K(2n)=16=8Am+2Bsm +2Cst+4tDstA. hybridaK(2n)=16=7Am1+csAm2 + 2Bsm +2Cst+3Dst1+tDst3A. narcissifloraK(2n)=14=10Am+2tBsm +2CstA. KeiskeanaK(2n)=28=24Am+4tBstHepatica acutaK(2n)=14=12Am+2tBst 2.From the karyotype analysi the two Anemone-species A. narcissifiora and A.Keiskeana are more similar to Hepatica acuta than to the other Anemone-species
In the present investigation, the effects of various ions on the crystal habits of oxalates of alkaline earth metals were observed. (1) The standard form of the calcium oxalate has a ratio or 1:2:3 of three axial lengths. (2) The effect of pH is not so strong, if the variation range of pH is small. (3) Disturbing effect of NO3-, Cl-, SO4-- and OH- increases according to this order and complex effect of NO3- and SO4-- is remarkable. (4) Disturbing effects of positive ions is generally stronger than that of negative ions. Effects of Cu++, Fe++, Na+, K+, Mg++, NH4+ were observed. Especially in the cases of Mg++ and NH4+, action of transforming things into needle-like shape “raphide” is observed and compared with the form in the plant cells. (5) Existence and non-existence of NH4+ in the various cells were checked and the above experiments could be positively examine, in this case, and the related experiments were done for this reason. As the results of above considerations, one may conclude _ for the first time that one and the chief reason for “raphide” formation, formerly considered as an attribute of the Monocotyledoneae is due to the existence of NH4+.
1) The karyotypes of examined four species belonging to the genusHypnum are as follows; Hypnum circinatulum Schimp. _??_K(n)=6=V(X)+2V+2J+m(h) _??_K(n)=6=V(Y)+2V+2J+m(h) Hypnum plumaeforrne Wils. _??_K(n)=10=V(X)+4V+4+m(h) _??_K(n)=10=V(Y)+4V+4+m(h) Hypaum Fujiyamae (Broth.) Par. _??_K(u)=10=V(H)+4V+4+m(h) Hypnum reptile Michx. _??_K(n)=11=2V(H)+4V+4+m(h) 2) H. circinatulumis the basic species of this genus, and the other three are the hypodiploid species missing one h (H reptile) or one set of H and h ((H. plumaeforme, H. Fujiyamae). 3) The sex chromosomes X and Y which have been found inH. circinatulum andH. plumaeformeare the same in chromosomal morphology, but there was observed a slight difference between their heteropycnosis. 4) The two H chromosomes of monoeciousH. reptilemay be the sex chromosomes X and Y, because their morphology and heteropycnosis are similar to those of the sex chromosomes X and Y ofH. circinatulum, etc.