1. A crude polyphenolase has been extracted from the subterranean stem of Scopolia japonica, into the phosphate buffer. 2. In the presence of this enzyme catechol takes up oxygen at a high rate, DL-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine and pyrogallol are oxidized rapidly, phloroglucinol and hydroquinone rather slowly, while resorcinol, L-tyrosine, phenol and p-cresol are not oxidized at all. 3. Among the inhibitors of the oxidation of catechol, cyanide is very effective, but sodium diethyldithiocarbamate is less effective. The author wishes to thank Prof. M. Shibata of the Biological Institute and Prof. K. Fukui of the Chemical Institute, Toyama University, for their great interests in this work. The material used in the present study was supplied by Prof. T. Nakaoki of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Toyama University, to whom his cordial thanks are due.
Coccophora Langsdorfai (Turn.) Grev., a Fucaceous alga, sometimes bears eight-nucleate abnormal eggs (Fig. 1 a, b) together with normal eggs composed of one central nucleus. The abnormal eggs so much resemble those of Sargassum as they could not be distinguished from the latter. After fertilization, just like Sargassum, seven of the eight nuclei gradually degenerate to disappear with advance of cleavage remaining one large active nucleus, which takes part in the embryo development. The active nucleus, however, is accustomed to be distributed to the basal cell (Fig1c) at the time of the first cleavage which takes place without nuclear division. As a result, the subsequent cleavage is restricted to the basal half, to form a half embryo with a large vacant apical cell (Fig. 1 f).
1) The critical dark period of Japanese morning glory was found to be ca. 8-9 hours. 2) A plant with a single leaf can be induced to initiate flower primordia by the application of a single dark period of 16 hours' duration. 3) If the induction is strong enough, the growing point of the shoot is consumed in initiating a terminal flower bud. 4) The number of plants with flowers or terminal flower primordia and the number of flowers initiated can be used in ascertaining quantitative relations in investigations of photoperiodic responses.
Yamadaia, a new genus proposed in the present paper, is a very curious articulated coralline. It was discovered by the writer on the coast of Izu Province. The erect part of the species is reduced to one joint only and the crust is so vigorously developed that, at first sight, it is mistaken for a non-articulated coralline. The node is unizonal and formed only between the crust and the joint. Thus, the erect part is represented only by a single joint bearing a conceptacle. The conceptacle-bearing joints are scattered on the surface of the crust. As in crustaceous Corallinaceae, the crust is made up of three layers: the epidermis, the perithallium and the hypothallium. The marginal meristem of the crust is composed of one layer of the long oblong cells and is not covered with an epidermal layer. Only transverse canals are found between cells belonging to different filaments and no morphological connexions are found among cells of the node. The conceptacle has an openning on its top and belongs to the terminal type. The roof of the conceptacle is built up of a special growth of the tissue around the bottom of the young one. The female conceptacle is long obovate in external form, and its cavity is ovate in section. The procarp is composed of one basal cell, one carpogonial branch and one or two sterile cells. The gonimoblast filaments are produced only from the margin of the thin fusion cell. The male conceptacle is long spindle-shaped in outline, and the beak is so long that the conceptacular canal is very long. The spermatangial mother cells are produced not only from the bottom but also from the lateral wall of the cavity. The tetrasporangial conceptacle is long obovate as in the female one, and the cavity is circular in section. The sporangia issue only from the bottom, and are surrounded by paraphyses few in number, in their young stage. The above mentioned respects show that the present genus has a close relation to Jania on the one hand, and to Corallina on the other hand. The anatomical characters rather suggest an intimate relation to Corallina.
1. Karyotype analysis was carried out on five species and one variety. Their karyotype formulae are represented as follows: Delphinium Ajacis K(2n)=16=2tAm+2Bm+10Cst+2Dst Lycoctonum chrysopilum K(2n)=16=2Am+2Bst+2tCst+8Dst+2Est L. Loczyanum K(2n)=16=2tAm+2Bst+2Cst+6Dst1+2tDst2+2tEst L. pterocaule K(2n)=16=2tAm+2Bst+2tCst+8Dst+2tEst Aconitum senanense K(2n)=32=2tAm1+2Am2+2Bst1+2Bst2+4Cst+12Dst1+4tDst2+4Est A. japonicum var. montanum K(2n)=32=2tAm1+2Am2+2Bst1+2Bst2+4Cst+14Dst1+ 2tDst2+4Est 2. The haploid chromosome set of Lycoctonum-species bears a much stronger resembrance to the basic set of Aconitum-species than to the haploid set of DelhhiniumAjacis.