1)The intracellular velocity distribution of the rotational streaming was determined in cells of rhizoid, 'leaf' and internode of Nitella flexilis. 2) In the cells havig a central vacuole, the plasmasol (endoplasm) at different layers flows with a nearly equal rate giving rise to an only insignificant velocity gradient inside. Only in the very narrow interfacial region between sol and gel layers there is an enormous velocity gradient. 3) In the cell, the whole space of which is filled artificially with endoplasm, the streaming of endoplasm occurs with a velocity distribution which coincides with that we would expect the endoplasm to assume when it is moved passively between two semicylindrical walls which shift in the opposite directions. 4) On the basis of analysis of the intracellular velocity distribution with the aid of a model experiment it was concluded that the flow of endoplasm is passive; the mechanism which drives endoplasm actively resides in the interfacial region between plasmasol (endoplasm) and plasmagel (ectoplasm).
In M. Jalapa all the bundles situated internal to the conjunctive tissue are of the primary nature. They are arranged in two medullary and a peripheral vascular rings. The inner medullary ring is composed of the main leaf-trace and cauline bundles; the next one, of the intermediary leaf-trace bundles. The peripheral ring consists of the lower continuations of the bundles of the outer medullary ring. Such an organization of the vascular system as this is all the same with that of Amaranthus, and can be derived from the suppositional original plan which have been brought forward by the writer (1956a) to explain the vascular system of the amaranthaceous plants. The course of individual bundles is all the same with that ofAchyranthes japonicaas a whole.The vascular course and the ontogeny show that even the peripheral bundles are primary, as it has been shown by Maheshwari (1930) inBoerhaavia diffusa and by the writer (1956b) inAmaranthus and in Celosia.
1. The substrain, R1b, obtainable by training the parent strain on 1mM copper medium, forms round and smooth brown (viz, the R1b-type) colonies on 1-2mM copper agar. On this medium, the parent strain grows irregular colonies carryin white and brown papillae. The latter papillae contain cells of the R1b-type. 2. Even after serial subcultures in the normal medium, R1b forms the R1b-type colonies on the copper medium. However, a little deadaptation was disclosed when the resistance test was made with higher concentrations of copper. 3. Selective growth of cells of intermediate resistance, as well as of R1b-type, as observed when the parent strain was inoculated in a liquid copper medium. 4. The clonal occurrence of resistance could not be observed in the parent strain. 5. Many of the clones of parent cells spread on 1.2mM copper agar can continue to grow very slowly, older cells losing their budding ability almost as rapidly as new ones are produced. When cells are formed which do not lose the budding ability so soon, the group of such cells grows rapidly and forms a papilla.
In all Iris species with unifacial leaves the rhizome lies in the soil horizontally and is distinctly dorsiventral. In most of them, the foliage shoots with equitant and isobilateral leaves which stand erect, both leaf surfaces being exposed equally to light and gravity. However, some species, for instance, Iris gracilipes A. Gray, Iris tectorum Maxim., etc. have plagiotropic shoots which do not show any anatomical unequality of the surfaces of their leaves. In the species described in the present report a structural dorsiventrality was found. In ris formosana the seedling has, except for the first 1 or 2, dorsiventral leaves. The dorsiventrality can be inverted by changing their direction in relation to gravity, as in Iris japonica. In Iris uniflora and Iris Rossii the seedling is not dorsiventral but the lateral shoots are distinctly so. Once established, this dorsiventrality cannot be inverted by changing the direction in respect to external factors. The growing point seems to be determined dorsiventrally and it gives rise to leaves with unequal surfaces. In this case also gravity seems to have the determining rôle. In the mode of induction Iris Wilsoni and Iris Bulleyana seem to belong to the stable type. It is noteworthy that all the above species are members of Asiatic flora. They Cbelong to the section Apogon except Iris japonica and Iris formosana, which are representatives of the section Evansia. The taxonomic or systematic significance of leaf dorsiventrality cannot be evaluated until more Iris species are thoroughly examined. In literature the indications are that many have leaves with unequal surfaces.* The causal sequence of aitiogenous induction of dorsiventral differentiation of the leaves is yet obscure. The unequal distribution of food materials and some determining hormones may probably be the factors which cause the unequal differentiation, as can be assumed from the eccentric growth in the thickness of the inclined trunks or lateral branches in many plants (14, 15). For the materials used in the present study we are indebted to Dr. M. Reed, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, U.S.A., Dr. Yu, Ching-jang, Dr. Shoichi Tanaka, Mr. Ryuhon Saito and Mr. Taketo Mizoguchi. We wish to express to all the above mentioned persons our sincere thanks for kindly supplying the rare plant materials.
1.In order to qualify the properties of useful solvent mixtures, paper chromatographic exami ations were carried out using authentic samples of various anthocyanins. As illustrated in Fig. 1, interesting relationship was found between Rf values and pigment structures. 2. Interesting also is the fact that diglycosides are degraded stepwise into monoglucosides, when treated with warm hydrochloric acid and the resuts can be clearly demonstrated chromatographically. Thus, the glycoside type of anthocyanins is indicated by paper chromatographic examination of the products of partial hydrolysis.
1. Crosses were made between 17 self-incompatible plants belonging to five diploid species of Taraxacum. The existence of a large number of incompatibility alleles in genus Taraxacum is suggested by the occurrence of few cross-incompatible combinations (Table 1). 2. Progenies of a cross between two self-incompatible species, T. elatum Kitamura and T. longe-appendiculatum Nakai were genetically analysed and found to consist of four intra-incompatible classes (Table 2). The compatibilities and incompatibilities among these four classes and two original parental plants can be explained by a hexagonal diagram on the assumption that a single series of fouroppositional multiple alleles is responsible (Fig. 4). 3. Pollen behavior is sporophytically controlled. All the pollen grains from one Plant act alike and depend on the genotype of its parental sporophyte. In this experiment S4 is recessive to each of the other three alleles. S1, S2 and S3 are “Strong” and dominant over S4, but each strong allele exhibits equal dominance values in the presence of the other. Both S1 and S2 pollen grains from a mother cell with S1 S2 alleles behave equally as S1 S2. Therefore, plants having one strong allele in common are cross-incompatible. 4. Dominance is not expressed in the pistil. 5. The self-incompatibility system found in Taraxacum is of the same type as that described for Crepis-Parthenium.
On the sea to the south of Kanto District, from the north to the south, Izu- Islands consisting of Oshima, Toshima, Niijima, Shikinejima, Kozushima, Miyakejima, Mikurajima, Hachijoshima, and Aogashima, lie in sequence covering three degrees in the latitude. For several years, the author has collected seed plants and ferns distributed over these isles, and made a list of them. He notices that the northern elements (plants growing in the northern part or mountainous region of Japan) spread to Mikurajima, while the southern elements (plants in the southern part of Japan or in the subtropical and tropical regions) come up to Miyakejima. This fact is probably attributed to the Black Current in the Pacific Ocean. According to a report, the width of the Current is frequently changeable, so that a zone put between the northern margins of fluctuated Current alters its width from ten to several hundreds kilometers, and the both isles of Miyakejima and Mikurajima are placed in this zone. The author supposes that the floral elements of these two isles were intensely influenced by the changeable Current, in other words, the northern elements reached Mikurajima when the Current became minimum, the southern elements arrived at Miyakejima when the Current became maximum width, and inhabited there respectively in a long past age. Thus, he would suggest to call this zone between the northern margins of the Current “Black Current Line”. as far as the flora of the Izu-Islands concerned.