The observations which were made on the fresh prothallium and spermatozoid by means of polarization microscope have made clear the following facts. 1) The membrane of prothallial cell shows the strong positive anisotropic property and the outer cell membrane of antheridium, archegonium, and rhizoidal cell are also positively anisotropic; and the cap of glandular hair is negatively anisotropic. 2) The plastid is very weakly anisotropic but the other structural elements of the prothallium are isotropic, 3) The spermatid and the cilia-bearing band of spermatozoid are very weakly anisotropic. The other structural elements of spermatozoid are isotropic. 4) The polarization effect is thought to depend upon the cellulose or other chemical components and the micellar arrangements of them. 5) Discussions were made also on the interference color.
1. The amphithecium and the endothecium are derived from the cell of quadrant, and the amphithecium is divided further into the inner and outer peristomial layers by periclinal walls. 2. The inner peristomial layer arises from the inner amphithecial layer, undergoing cell division until it is composed of 20-24 cells in cross section by the formation of anticlinal walls. 3. The outer peristomial layer comes to have sixteen cells in cross section by the formation of anticlinal walls. These sixteen cells of the layer undergo no further division. 4. Both peristomial layers form eight groups, each of which is composed of 2 rows of the outer layer and 2 or 3 (mostly 3) rows of the inner layer, and gives rise to two teeth. 5. The ridges of thickening, corresponding to the peristome are laid upon the periclinal walls between the two (inner and outer) peristomial layers. 6. Before the thickenings are deposited, the nuclei in the cells of two layers taking part in the formation of the teeth, are enlarged. And then the protoplasm of both inner and outer peristomial cells moves towards the outer walls of the inner peristomial cells. Following the thickenings the vacuoles appear in cell cavity and both the cytoplasm and the nuclei gradually shrivel away and disappear. Finally the writer expresses many thanks to Dr. Akira Noguchi, Prof. of the Kumamoto University for his kind abvices.
1. In this article, the author intended to divide the Genus Cladium in a wide meaning into two natural groups, Cladium sensu stricto and Machaerina, by their morphological characters including the pollen grains. 2. In the former group, leaves are coriaceous, dorsiventrally flattened and always 3-ranked, and achenes are somewhat drupe-like and not crowned by distinct beak at apex, whereas the latter has bilaterally compressed or terete leaves usually 2-ranked and has achenes crowned by a distinct beak often scabrous at tip. 3. This division also very well agrees with the features of pollen grains, which are represented by 1-6-aperturate type in the former and polyforate type in the latter. 4. Concerning the generic name of the latter, Vahl's Machaerina is legitimate.
1. The effect of various amino acids alleviating the copper injury of a strain of S. ellipsoideus was observed with three methods; a) determination of the highest copper concentration which does not permit a preferential growth of secondary resistant colonies on the streaked parent strain; b) comparison of the survival ratios of the parent strain and of a copper-trained substrain at various copper concentrations; c) reversal of copper inhibition of CO2 evolution. 2. The inhibition by copper was much reduced by the presence of Na-glutamate or Na-aspartate in the medium. 3. The copper resistance of the predominating resistant strain, R1b, seems to rest on the ability of synthesizing gultamic acid in the presence of copper.
The vascular branching for the sporophyll in the phyllomophore of Helminthostachyszeylanica was described. Certain supplements were given to the recent observation by Nozu (1955) on the same species and his opinions were criticized. The present writer proposed the term “hetero-marginal method”. in contrast with marginal and extra-marginal method, to designate the vascular branching toward the sporophyll of Helminthostachys zeylanica as the vascular supply for the sporophyll in this species has the tendency to be originating from one, instead of two, adaxial end of _??_-like arrangement of vascular bundles, and to run spirally into the pith of the phyllomophore. The writer also proposed “iso-marginal method” to replace the so-called marginal method, and attempted to establish three types of the methods, in the phyllomophore of the order Ophioglossales, iso-, hetero-, and extra-marginal, in order to express more precisely the character of the vacscular branching.
Janus green B stains the periderm and the pith of hypocotyl and radicle of ungerminated seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. The procambium, which contains no mitochondria, is not stained from beginning to end of the procedure unless the cells are living Under a coverglass, the stain reduced and decolorized. This reduction is inhibited by heating (52°C for 30min.), low pH, acetate buffer (M/10), malonate monoiodoacetate (M/1000), arsenite (M/300), and Pb (NO3)2 (M/10), and accelerated (M/100), by succinate (6M/10). These inhibitions and acceleration show that succinic dehydrogenase plays a role in the process of the reduction of Janus green B, presumably in directly under the present experimental conditions. Cyanide (M/1000) also inhibits the reduction. Without coverglass, i. e. in complete aerobic condition, the reduction dose not occur whether cyanide is present or not. The hypothesis of L Aazarow and Cooperstein on the mechanism of the specific staninig of mitochondria was criticized on the ground of the above stated experimental data and some theoretical considerations.
1) The digestion and deposition of the starch grains in the growing pollen of Tradescantia were observedaand figured. (figs. 1) 2) In the immature pollen of Tradescantia, Lilium, Antirrhinum, Gladiolus and some other species the storage starch were found abundantly, but with the progress of maturation the starch grains became empty. (figs. 1, 3, 4) 3) The mature pollen of Tradescantia occured plasmolysis more easily than immature pollen (table 1). The result indicate that the storage starch are transformed into sugar. 4) The sugars in the pollen of Impatiens, Zea, Narcisus, Camellia, Lilium, Cucurbita, and Antirrhinum were investigated by mean of paper chromatography. Sucrose, glucose and fructose were found in the respective pollen grains (fig. 5). 5) On the artificial culture media sucrose in the Lilium and Camellia pollen gradually removed, than glucose and frucotose increased (figs. 6).