1. The cells, trained to and grown in the medium containing 4mM of copper, contained in their amino acid pool less of glycine and serine and more of peptide-like matter than those grown in the unpoisoned medium. 2. Chromatograms of the extracts from copper-trained substrains did not differ from that of the parent strain when they were cultured in the unpoisoned medium.
In Allium roots treated with NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4, a number of mitotic abnormalities were observed, but neither pairing nor segregation of homologous chromosomes was observed. The fact obtained in this experiment that the mitotic figures in metaphase are more frequently observed in the treated roots than those in the control root, may be due to the retardation of the kinetochore splitting.
1) The water content of lotus-seed collected from the bottom-mud of pond was determined by the use of two methods. 2) The apparatus for Karl Fischer's back titration method was modified by the writers, and used in this study. 3) The results obtained from the different regions of seed by these two methods were compared, and then discussed. 4) Because the moisture content of the seed is not extremly small, the reason why the lotus-seed retain the vitality for a long time may not be in the smallness of water content. Acknowledgment is due to Dr. K. Yusawa for providing facilities and for his helpful suggestions and encouragement, and also to Dr. I. Ohga for his kindness in giving the sample used in this study and for his sincere advice.
Somatic chromosomes of twenty one grass species were examined. The systematic placing of Sieglingia, Tridens and Chikusichloa was discussed on the basis of distinctive features of the epidermis, transverse leaf section and chromosome situation. Diversity of chromosomes concerning their basic number and size in Festuceae-Festucinae and Andropogoneae was pointed out. The character of the chromosome complements of the other species reported in this paper is in agreement with that of the tribes to which they belong. It is a pleasure to record here a debt of gratitude to Dr. E. Potztal and Dr. J. Ohwi for their kindness during the course of the present investigations.
1. An investigation of 16 beech trees (Fagus crenata BLUME.) in the forest of Mt. Kammuri, located in the western part of Hiroshima Prefecture, was conducted to determine the vertical distribution of epiphytic bryophytes. 2. All species taken up in the investigation of the mountain-ridge are grouped into four distributional types: the groups of species showing their maximum flourishing (1) at the trunk base, (2) at the trunk, (3) at the upper trunk and crown base, (4) at the upper crown. 3. It recognized that the epiphytic bryophyte communities show a substantial tendency of the zonation in the vertical distribution observed in the supporting-trees. 4. There are some remarkable differences in the state of zonal arrangement between the mountain-ridge and the mountain-side. The comparative summarization of the zonal arrangement in each place is shown in Table 4. 5. It seems to be that differences in the state of zonal arrangement between the two places are mainly due to the difference of climatic factors brought by topographical conditions.
In the present investigation, in the first place, the effects of various inorganic salts on pollen tube growth were observed. Used salts were FeCl3, SnCl2, KCl, MnCl2, MgCl2, CaCl2, NH4Cl, NaCl, ZnCl2, CoCl2, BaCl2, SrCl2, aad AgNO3. Observed flowers were Rhododendron japonicum, Ptsum Sativum. Iris Pseudacorus, Hypercium chinese Impatiens balsamina and TheaSinensis, Conirary to commonly believed results, on suitable conditions, growth-promoting effects on pollen tube of some salts, such as FeCl3, SnCl2, KCl, CaCl2, NH4Cl etc. were observed. In case of agar media containing 10 percent cane sugar, optimum concentration may be 0.00001-0.0001mol, but in case of water media it should be more dilute. In the second place, observations about function of sugar, about relation between starch grains, osmotic pressure and pollen tube growth, and about daily change of osmotic pressure of pollen grains were done.
Experiments were performed to make clear the effect of light and darkness, on germination of the spores of Dryopteris crassirhizoma which have a typical character of “Long Day Seeds”. 1) A high germination rate was obtained by a single illumination so long as its duration is fairly long, for exmple, 18 or 24hours. However, the illumination on the 4th day in the presoking time had rather weak effect on the germination, as the light-sensitivity changed with the lapse of presoaking time, as observed in the case of tabacco seeds (Fig. 3). 2) One long light period mentioned above was divided into two short light periods, L1 and L2 with insertion of one dark period D1. With varying dark periods, it was revealed that the dark period optimum for germination was 12-18 hours, regardless of the lengths of both light periods. 3) The germination rates secured by insertion of a dark period were higher than the rates obtained with one continuous exposure to light whose length was Table 1. Effects of two light periods of different duration at optimum dark period of 15hours Table II. Effects to two light periods of different duration at optimum dark period of 15hours. equal to the total period of L1+D1+L2. Therefore, it might be concluded that the dark period inserted between two light periods promoted the germination of the spores positively. 4) With various combination of L1 and L2 and an optimum dark period of 15 hours, it was recognized that the germination rates were generally increased in proportion to the total length of both the light periods, and had no direct relation to each length of them. In this photo-germinating character, the spore of Dryopteriscrassirhizoma is obviously different from the seed of Epilobium cephalostigma.
1) There are several problems to be discussed in the field survey and statistics of biological types of plants. The important ones among those are as follows: a. In the case of Japan covering three climatic zones, it will be of little ecological value to collect statistics as a whole unless stratifying those areas. b. There are some cases difficult to judge a biological type to which a plant belongs. Particularly the individual variation of the highest position of perennial buds and the influences of microclimatic conditions based on topography are to be noticed. c. The ecological meaning of species spectrum is restricted within narrow limits. The frequency spectrum in a wider sense sholud be used. d. The concept of phylogentetic type is not fully removed even in the Raunkiaer's life-form system. Abundance of geophytes in the monocotylous plants, for instance, exerts an influence upon the species spectrum. e. The sampling techniques have not been systematically introduced in the former statistics of biological types. The sampling method will be also useful as in the case of the vegetational analysis. 2) In this report, some considerations concerning the point b. mentioned above will be described. Especially the cases difficult to judge whether R3 (a type of rhizome plants) or R5 (non-clonal growth) in the radicoid types proposed by the senior author have been taken up as follows (cf. Fig. A-F): A) The tuberous enlargements of the rhizome with the conspicuous scars left by the fall of the erect stems of previous seasons. We are apt to judge as R5 by the only one erect stalk of the current season. e.g. Polygonatum, Smilacina, Pauax. B) A distinct rhizome from which a single erect shoot develops each year and the remnants of similar shoots of former seasons are not clear. e.g. Paris, Ephippianthus, Tricyrtis. C) A obliquely ascending rhizome similar to the lowering of a rosette plant from year to year by the root-contraction. The scale leaves of former seasons remain partly. e.g. Viola Bisetti, Viola vaginata, Coptis, Gastrodia. D) A beadlike chain of tubers. It is a special form of R3. e.g. Calanthe, Cremastra, Ororchis. Liparis. E) A horizontal rhizome with short internodes. It is similar to C) besides the character of a geophyte. e.g. Anemone. F) An obliquely asbending rhizome from the sides of which a few erect stems rise. e.g. Atractylodes, Spuriopimpinella, Cimicifuga, Anemonopsis
1. In the chloroplast and cytoplasma isolated from the leaves of Bryophyllun and Raphanus, starch was formed mere in the G-1-P substrate. 2. The formation of starch in the isolated chlroplast and cytoplasma were controlled by the change of physiological factors which has an effect before they are isolating. 3. More starch was formed in the chloroplast and cytoplasma isolated from the leaves kept in the light and in higher temperature than in those from the leaves kept in the dark and in lower temperature. 4. Starch forming activity diminishes earlier in chloroplast than in cytoplasma when the leaves kept in the dark. 5. Starch is easily formed in the chloroplast and cytoplasma isolated from the leaves kept in the dark for many days but exposed again to the light immediately before isolation.
Six genera twenty species of mosses belonging to Bryaceae were studied cytologically with special reference to their karyotypes and heterochromosomes. The results obtained are as follows: Pohlia scabridcns (Mitt.) Broth. K(n)=10=V(H)+2J+6(2v+4j)+m(h) *Tischler (1927, '38) _??__??__??_ March 1956 Bot. Mag. Tokyo, Vol. 69, No. 813 161 P. revolvens (Card.) Nog. K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(2v+5j)+m(h) P. revoluta (Card.) Ochi. K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(2v+5j)+m(h) P. columbica (Kindb.) Broth. K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(2v+5j)+m(h) P. cornea (L.) Limpr. K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(2v+5j)+m(h) P. Wahlenbergii (Web. et Mohr.) Andrews. K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(2v+5j)+m(h) P. acuminata Hoppe et Hornsh. K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(2v+5j)+m(h) P. Suzukii Ochi. K(n)=20=2V(H)+4J+12(4v+8j)+2m(h) P. nutans Schreb. K(n)=22=2V(H)+4J+14(4v+10j)+2m(h) P. patentissima Ochi. K(n)=22=2V(H)+4J+14(4v+10j)+2m(h) Bryum nagasakense Broth. K(n)=10=V(H)+V+2J+5(2v+3j)+m(h) B. argenteum L. K(n)=10=V(H)+V+2J+5(2v+3j)+m(h) B. cyclophyllum (Schwagr.) Br. eur. K(n)=10=V(H)+V+2J+5(2v+3j)+m(h) B. pseudo-alpinum Ren. et Card. K(n)=10=V(H)+V+2J+5(2v+3j)+m(h) B. caespiticum L. K(n)=10=V(H)+V+2J+5(2v+3j)+m(h) Anomobryum japonicum Broth. K(n)=10=V(H)+V+2J+5(2v+3j)+m(h) Plagiobryum japonicum Nog. K(n)=10=V(H)+V+2J+5(2v+3j)+m(h) Brachymenium exile (Doz. et Molk.) v. d. B. et Lac. K(n)=11=V(H)+V+2J+6(3v+3j)+m(h) Rhodobryum roseum (Weis.) Limpr. K(n)=11=V(H)+5V+4J+m(h) R. giganteum (Hook.) Par. K(n)=11=V(H)+5V+4J+m(h)
The haploid chromosome number of N. Langsdorffii, is nine, as in N. alata, N. Sanderae and N. bonariensis. Avery (1938) reported that this plant shows nine bivalents at the first metaphase of the PMC's; however, I have most often observed the configuration 7II+1IV, occasionally 9II, and rarely 7II+1III +1I at the diakinesis and also at the first metaphase. The quadrivalent is N-shaped at the first metaphase. The two middle elements are the largest of all the chromosomes and the two terminal ones are about the same in size as the other chromosomes. At the first anaphase, the four elements of the quadrivalent are distributed equally between the two poles but the two large middle elements showes frequently a chromosome bridge. At the meiosis of haploid N. Langsdorffii, Kostoff (1930, 1938, 1941) observed one, two or three groups of two chromosomes in close proximity (secondary association) during the first metaphase, and occasionally one, rarely two and more rarely three bivalents during the first metaphase and early anaphase. Accordingly, he assumed that the basic chromosome number of the ancestral plant of the genus Nicotiana might have been six. My observations also suggest that the basic chromosome number of this genus is lower than 9.
1) The chromosome numbers and morphologies were studied in the species of Lolium, one species of Arrhenatherum and one species of Sorghum. 2) The karyotype formulae were as follows: Lolium perenneK(2n)=14=2Am1+2csAsm2+2Bm1+2csBsm2+2Csm1+2Cst2+1Cst3 L. multiflorumK2(n)=14=2Asm1+2csAsm2+2Bm1+2Bsm2++2csBsm3+2Csm1+2Cst1 L. temulentumK(2n)=14=2Am1+2Asm2+2Ast3+2Am4+2Bsm1+2Bst2+2Cm1 Arrhenatherum elatiusK(2n)=28=4Asm1+2Am2+2csAsm3+2Am4+2tBsm1+ 4Bsm2+2Bm3 +4B4sm+2csCm1+4Cm2 Sorghum vulgare var. sudaneseK(2n)=20=2tAsm1+2Bm+2Bsm2+6Bm3+2Bm4+6Cm1