Floerkea proserpinacoides is a monotypic North American plant belonging to the family Limnanthaceae. It bears solitary trimerous flowers. The stamens are arranged in two whorls of which the outer alternates with the petals and has basal glands. The gynoecium is usually tricarpellary, the ovaries are separate from each other and the style is gynobasic. There is a single, basal-parietal, ascending ovule in each ovary. The anther wall comprises the epidermis, fibrous endothecium, two persistent middle layers and glandular tapetum. The reduction divisions are simultaneous, cytokinesis occurs by furrowing and the tetrads are decussate or tetrahedral. The pollen grains are tetracolporate and are shed at the 2-celled stage. The ovule is anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate with an integumentary vascular supply. A group of archesporial cells differentiates in the young nucellus but only one of them functions as the megaspore mother cell. A parietal cell is not cut off and the development of the embryo sac is tetrasporic. The mature gametophyte shows the egg apparatus, and two polar nuclei; rarely one or two antipodal nuclei are also seen. The endosperm is nuclear and walls are not laid down. The endosperm develops a pouch-like haustorium at the micropylar end towards the funicular side. The zygote divides transversely. The mature embryo has a short radicle. The cotyledons have backward extensions which become forked. The testa consists of 8-10 and the pericarp of 3-4 layers. The pericarp has an uneven surface and the outer tangential wall of the epidermis develops pyramidal thickenings. The epidermis and hypodermis of testa and some cells of the pericarp contain 'tannin'. The fruit is an indehiscent achene (nutlet). The morphological and embryological features of the Limnanthceae do not support its inclusion either in the order Sapindales or the Geraniales. It is suggested that this family may be given an ordinal rank under the name Limnanthales.
1. The anthocyanin pigments contained in rice plants were analysed by means of paper chromatography, and it was revealed that the said anthocyanins were the same with no qualitative differences within the combinations of color genes, and hues and shades of colors as specified above. 2. The aglucone of this anthocyanin was identified as cyanidin.
The filamentous appendage similar to that found in the spermatozoid of Conocephalumconicum has been confirmed in the following eight species belonging to three orders of Hepaticae: Metzgeriales: Pellia fabbroniana, Makinoa crispata, Marchantiales: Marchantia polymorpha, Conocephalum supradecompositum, Wiesnerelladenudata, Dumortiera hirsuta subsp. tatunoi, Anthocerotales: Phaeoceroslaevis, Notothylas japonica.
In the proembryo of Cupressus funebris eight free nuclei are formed and then the first wall formation takes place. In the 16 cell stage, the proembryonal development comes to an end. The cleavage polyembryony is usually found. The embryogeny of C. funebris is identical with that of Chamaecyparis, but not with that of C. sempervirens.
1) The remains of Pinus koraiensis were found in 24 different localities in Japan, associated with about 55 species belonging to 35 genera and 22 families. 2) The following species are new records for the remains in Japan: Betula ermani, Betula platyphylla, Larix dahurica var., Picea glehni, Picea koyamai and Pinus parviflora. 3) Among the associated remains there are 10 dominant species which were found at more than 5 localities. They are growing in foggy places in the mountains of Central Honshu, Japan, about 1500m above sea-level. 4) The geological age of most localities belongs to the Pleistocene with the exception of one place belonging to the Pliocene. In the middle bed of the Pleistocene some extinct species such as Tsuga, Ceratophyllum and Thuja were found in Manzidani, but they are lacking from the upper Pleistocene as in Egota. 5) The migration of the Pinus koraiensis or associated subalpine flora in Japan was considered to be from the upper Miocene and extended down from the mountains during the cold age of the Pleistocene. 6) The depression of temperature at sea-level during the cold age of Pleistocene was calculated roughly as 7.4°±2.0°C lower than that of present times. It is confirmed not only by a destitution of broad-leaved evergreen trees, but by a frequent mixture with deciduous broad-leaved trees. 7) Pinus koraiensis which is associated with subalpine conifers is considered as an index remain which shows the lowering of temperature in the Pleistocene age in Japan.
In the early stage of development, the sinkers of Pecteilis radiata are typical lateral buds arising at the axils of the fourth and fifth leaves on one monopodium. In summer the hypopodium of the lateral bud is elongated extraordinarily by a rib meristem and is hardly distinguishable from the absorbing roots except by its white colour and the absence of root hairs. Then a mass meristem appears within the periblem near the second node, and later it develops into a tuber. The full-grown sinker consists of three parts-the stalk, the neck and the tuber. The stalk corresponds to the hypopodium of a lateral shoot and is a typical cauline axis; the tuber, the distal part of the sinker, is a single adventitious root of the mesogenous origin. The calyptrogen is not so active that a root pocket derived from the periblem of the mother axis covers the tuber apex firmly as if it were a real root cap, but in the older tuber the root pocket is peeled off completely and the tuber apex is also covered with the rhizoderm having root hairs. The neck is represented by the connecting part between the stalk and the tuber, and morphological peculiarities are observed in this part alone. The neck has a central cavity, at the bottom of which the terminal bud of the lateral shoot is situated. The ontogeny shows that the neck is derived from the parts between the first and the third nodes of a lateral shoot by the characteristic growth of the parts. The rhizoderm is, however, differentiated not only at the part of typical root nature but also at the part of the neck, and then the epidermis of the neck is replaced by the rhizoderm after it is peeled off. Therefore, the neck may be said to be a sort of the periclinal chimera consisting of the stem and root.
The gametophyte and young sporophyte of Angiopteris suboppositifolia grown in nature and in culture were studied. Spores germinated about two weeks after, giving rise to a very short filament which develops soon to form a thin body or, rarely in culture, somewhat massive one. The fully mature thallus is characteristic dark green in colour and broadly cordate with a midrib which may reach about 10 cells in thickness. Excepting unicellular, large and reddish brown rhizoids, no hairs are present at any stage. Antheridium is situated on the dorsal surfaces, rarely also on the ventral; they are of the sunken and large primitive type with a triangular cap cell and a large output. Archegonium is situated always on the ventral surface; the archegonium neck is short and scarcely projects above the surface, and the small egg lies at the bottom of the wide archegonial cavity. In the type of germination and in the form of mature thallus, Angiopteris shows the primitive type of the Leptosporangiate ferns, while in the features of sex organs it resembles closely such Eusporangiate ferns as the other genera of the Marattiaceae and Ophioglossaceae.
1. The floral constructions are considered under the concept of leaf-class. 2. In seed plants, there are, at least, two different patterns of floral construction. The one is SF-combination and the other, G-leaf-class. 3. The former is made up of two groups, the outer one is composed of 2-F (sepal and outer stamen) and 2-S (two petals). While the inner one, with 2-F (inner stamen and fertile carpel) and 2-S (two sterile carpels). 4. In the flower of G-leaf-class, floral leaves are of all G, arranged in pentacyclic manner with alternation of one radius with three member of sepal-outer stamen-carpel and the other, with petal and inner stamen. 5. Most types of different flower are in species-specific pattern but can be interpreted as the derivatives modified through several different courses from the above mentioned fundamental architectures.
To make clear the electric charge and the rH, the staining reactions by the methods of Unna-Golodetz's neutral violet extra, prussian blue, Mn-methyl green, and rH-indicators were tested to the spermatozoid (spermatid) or the prothallium in fern. The following facts were gotten from the results of staining reactions. (1) The nucleus of spermatozoid shows the negative charge but the cilia-bearing band, the cilium, and the border-brim do not show it. The cytoplasm of the spermatid also show the negative charge. (2) In the prothallium, the cells of the meristemal portion and the nucleus of prothallial cell, and the rhizoidal cell present the negative charges, whereas the cytoplasm of prothallial cells show the positive charge, or the posive and the negative charges locally. As to the charge, the polarity is thought to exist in the whole area of prothallium. (3) The nucleus of spermatozoid and the cytoplasm of spermatid show the oxidation color and their rHs are high. In the prothallium, the meristemal portion presents often the oxidation color, whereas the prothallial cell (cytoplasm, membrane) and the rhizoid (cytoplasm) show the reduction color and their rHs are low. Judging from these facts the polar property of the prothallium is thought to exist.
Spores of Equisetum arvense L. were germinated in water, being rotated irregularly with air bubbles. As a result:-(1) It was revealed that the polarity axis was determined autonomically without the presence of a gradient of the external conditions. (2) The mode of germination was the same as that placed in the still water, both in morphological and in physiological characters. (3) A latent polarity, originally prepared in the spore cell, must be considered. Therefore, when the actual polarity is determined in the germination with the external condition, such as the unilateral illumination, it seems to be a modification of the latent polarity axis, but not a de novo formation of the polarity.
1. Among several important problems concerning the field survey and statistics of biological types of plants, some cases difficult to judge a life-form to which a plant belongs are discussed in this report. Heretofore the identification of life-forms seems to have been done without much consideration as compared with that of species. To avoid such misjudgements, it will be most important that many individuals are compared and especially the underground parts of plants are examined. 2. In this report, ambiguous types of life-forms particularly concerning hemicryptophytes, chamaephytes, and geophytes as shown in Fig. A-G are discussed. A) This is one of evergreen lianas, not climbing, and a creeping chamaephyte. The highest perennating buds are lateral buds (b in the left figure) on the creeping stem from which some adventitious roots grow (Fig. A). B) An evergreen herb as a rosette-like hemicryptophyte. No terminal perennating bud is formed (Fig. B). C) The highest perennating buds (b') wither in a short time. This seems to be a protohemicryptophyte as a rule (Fig. C). D) A geophyte with an obliquely ascending rhizome. When a tuberous enlargement is near to the soil surface, it is apt to be misjudged as a hemicryptophyte (Fig. D). E) A rhizome geophyte which is apt to be misjudged as a hemicryptophyte for their large scaly buds often appearing on the soil surface (Fig. E). F) A tussock-like rhizome hemicryptophyte which is apt to be misjudged as a geophyte or chamaephyte (Fig. F). G) A geophytic perennial herb. As the perennating bud on the basal portion of an aerial stem grows already in November to a rosette-like plant, it is apt to be mis judged as a hemicryptophyte or chamaephyte (Fig. G).
1. Development of foliar sclereids of Sciadopitys verticillata Sieb. et Zucc. has been studied in checking for various stages of needle-leaf development (text-Fig. 1). 2. The needle reaches its maximum length after very gradual elongation by the activity of the intercalary meristem during a little over eighty days. After this process, the needle markedly increases its breadth, owing chiefly to the spreading of stomatal groove which is closely folded until that time (text-Fig. 2. B, and C). 3. In matured needle, sclereids are especially numerous and markedly ramified from apex to middle part (Fig. 2. A) while they decrease in their number and become simple in their ramification toward base (Plate XVII. D, E, and F). 4. Differing from many cases hitherto reported, there is no notable differenciation in size between nucleus of sclereid initial and that of mesophyll cell. Accordingly, initial cells are difficult to found until the ramification begins. 5. Translocation of the nucleus of initial cell occurs in certain earlier stages of its development, giving rise the protuberances which soon elongate to form ramifications. There are found, however, no instances in which the nucleus translocates into the elongating branches. 6. Two each examples of binucleate initial were found in at random observation of 326 initials obtained on Apr. 16th, and 523 initials on Apr. 21st (Plate X VIII. B). In both cases, size of the nuclei was unequal.
1. At an early stage, the newly formed egg nucleus and the ventral canal cell nucleus are Feulgen positive. 2. When the egg nucleus increases in size, it becomes Feulgen negative. 3. In the fused nucleus both the female and male parts are Feulgen negative except the contact part of both nuclei which is Feulgen positive. 4. In some fused nuclei thread-like chromatin filaments show a posifive Feulgen reaction, in both female and male parts. 5. In the prophase of the proembryo long thread-like chromosomes are scattered in the nuclear cavity which is Feulgen negative. 6. The nuclei of proembryo decrease their size after every nuclear division. The chromosomes have the same tendency, therefore the quantity of DNA of eachnucleus is not constant and it seems that it gradually decreases according to the growth of the proembryo. 7. Granules, rich in pentose nucleic acid, appear around the nuclei of the proembryo before the four-tier stage and embryo formation.
An atmospheric nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga, Tolypothrix tenuis from Borneo, was applied on the rice plant in paddy field experiments. In these experiments it was examined whether or not the inoculation of the paddy field with Tolypothrixtenuis which is a powerful nitrogen-fixer was conducive to higher yield of rice, through the contribution of the plant remains to the increase in soil fertility. These experiments were done in eight agricultural experiment stations and three universities during the past four years. As a result of applying this blue-green alga, the yield of rice increased by 2.7% in the first year, 8.4% in the second year, 19.1% in the third year and 21.8% in the fourth year, on an average of eleven fields. In the first year, only the one-third of the algae which multiplied in the paddy fields was decomposed and absorbed by the rice plants and the remains were contained as the nitrogen fertilizer in the soil. This is the reason why the effect of the algae on the yield of rice increases year by year. In one experiment, it was made clear that the effect of the inoculation of the paddy field with this alga was almost similar to that of manuring it with 64 pounds of ammonium sulfate/acre as the additional fertilizer.