1. Measured were the activities of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase and the water uptake of etiolated pea stem which had been treated by auxin. 2. A remarkable parallelism was observed between the pectin methylesterase activity and the water absorption of the tissue, in respect to a) the concentration effect of IAA, b) the contrast between the aerobic and the anaerobic IAA treatments, and c) the weaker effects of naphthaleneacetic acid and phenylacetic acid as compared with IAA. 3. The activity of polygalacturonase was comparatively low, and the effect of IAA on it was not well paralleled by that on the water absorption. 4. The results appear favourable to the theory that the cell wall would become elongated the plasticization by pectin methylesterase activated by IAA.
The anthocyanin in blood-red fiower of “Eclipse”. a garden variety of tulip (Tulipa Gesneriana L.) has been studied and it has been proved that it is none other than keracyanin (3-O-rhamnoglycosidylcyanidin 2H2O) by chemical analysis, absorption spectroscopy and paper chromatography.
The obtained data concerning the intercellular spaces in the pulvinus of Mimosapudica may be summarized as follows: 1) Tannin substance in the motor tissue was fixed with Kaiser's and Bensley's fluids, and a 0.5per cent alcoholic solution of toluidine blue was found to be a specific agent for staining the tannin. 2) In the motor tissue both before and after the stimuli, canaliculated intercellular spaces which contain the tannin appear very clearly by this technique. 3) The tannin from the several parenchymatous cells is thought to discharge into the canaliculated intercellular spaces. 4) From the data of these observations, it is concluded that the canaliculated spaces are by no means artificial figure.
1. The present writer has studied cytologically 23 species of Rubus which were collected from various localities of Japan and 3 garden Rubus. Their chromosome numbers were confirmed to be 2n=14, 28, 42, 49 and 56, showing a polyploid series with a basic number n=7. 2. As far as the writer's investigation has been made, subgenera Idaeobatus and Anoplobatus include only diploids, while subgenera Chamaeobatus and Malachobatus consist of polyploid species. 3. In meiosis of Rubus pseudo-Sieboldii, which is a natural octoploid of hybrid origin, only bivalents or bivalents with a few tetravalents are formed. 4. In the garden variety of R. fruticosus (2n=28), the most frequent configurations of chromosomes are 13II+2I . A kind of Blackberry was confirmed to be heptaploid (2n=49). In meiosis of this plant the configurations of chromosomes are 21II+7I . The pollen grains of these two garden plants consist of normal and abortive ones.
When eggs of Coccophora Langsdorfii, Fucus evanescens, or Sargassum confusum are treated with zinc chloride solution at a densinty higher than 25per cent, clear blisters are formed over the egg surface. After the morphological polarity was determined, plasmolysis occurs with zinc chloride so that the protoplasm is separated from the cell wall and the blisters appear in the space between the plasm and the cell wall. This indicates that the cell wall has been hardened parallel with the po larity determination. The blisters seem to be composed of the hyaline plasm extruded through small holes of the plasma membrane brought about by treatment with zinc chloride.
1. The present paper deals with the nuclear migration from the diploid mycelium into the large haploid mycelium in the doubly legitimate combination, using Coprinus macrorhizus f. microsporus (a tetrapolar fungus). 2. Both of the nuclei of the diploid mycelium migrate through the same hyphae of the large haplont, in which one of the two nuclei advances more rapidly than the other. 3. The speed of nuclear migration seems to be controlled by the modifiers which also decide the conjugation affinity between two compatible nuclei. 4. The both nuclei of an inoculated diplont can rarely arrive simultaneously at the terminal cell of a haploid hypha, resulting in coexistence of three nuclei in the cell. In this case, if the conjugation affinity between the foreign two nuclei is stronger than that between the nucleus proper to the haplont and either of the foreigners, conjugation will occur between the two foreigners.
The development of sorus of Alaria crassifolia Kjellm., Laminaria japonica Aresch. and Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Sur. has been studied. In these species both the zoosporangia and paraphyses originate from the meristoderm of the sporophyll. But, there are some differences in the mode of development of sorus between A. crassifolia and other two species. In L. japonica andU. pinnatifida, the upper cell is destined to be paraphysis and the lower cell to produce zoospore-mother-cells, and zoosporangia and paraphyses develop simultaneously. In A. crassifolia the upper cell is destined to be paraphysis but the lower cell to produce both the paraphysis and zoospore-mother-cells, and the development of zoosporangia takes place secondarily after the complete growth of paraphyses.