Studying the influences of the aqueous solution of KCl and other seven kinds of the neutral salts and the hydrogen ion on the duration of life of the spermatozoid of Athyrium melanolepis Christ and other six species of Pteridophyta, the following facts were known. 1. The duration of life of the spermatozoid is effected by the cation and the more the ion-value of cation increases, the more the limit concentration of the solution in which the spermatozoid lives decrease gradually. 2. The hydrogen ion disturbs the duration of life of the spermatozoid. The medium whose acidity is alkaline (pH 8.2) is most favorable for the duration of life of the spermatozoid. 3. In fertilization, when the spermatozoids approach to the archegonium and enter in it and at last reach the egg-cell, it is favorable that the ion-value of cation in the medium is small and the acidity of medium is alkaline, in which the spermatozoids move on. This fact is significant and important from the viewpoint of the physiology of fertilization.
1. A microorganism, an imperfect fungus, was isolated from the air, which decomposes quercetin, the aglycone of rutin, into phloroglucinol and protocatechuic acid, when cultured with rutin, but not with quercetin itself. This fungus belongs to Pullularia. 2. More than about 70% quantity of theoretical value of phloroglucinol and protocatechuic acid are found after decomposition of rutin by the organism. 3. The activities of rhamnodiastase and rhamnosidase are found in the organism and rutinose, rhamnose and glucose are detected in the medium after 5 days culture.
1.Diploids and induced autotetraploids of 2 two-rowed and 3 six-rowed cultivated varieties of Hordeum sativum and a two-rowed wild species, H. spontaneumC. Koch var. transcaspicum Vav. were used in the crossing experiments. 2.Seventeen eu-triploids with 2n=21 and 2 hypo-triploids with 2n=20 chromosomes were obtained from a total of 2721 florets of the crosses 4x×2x. 3. The cross 2x×4x gave a high percentage of seed setting with an exception of Hosomugi in 1952, the seeds, however, did not germinate. 4. Unexpectedly, two hyper-tetraploids, 2n=29 and 30, were obtained from the cross 4x×2x in H. spontaneum C. Koch var. transcaspicum Vav. 5. The percentage of seed setting and of germination differed in different cross combinations and different years.
Abnormally cloven eggs of Coccophora Langsdorfii were obtained after being fertilized artificially. They were divided into two groups, i.e. abnormal in segmentation and irregular in form. Of these, the following was revealed.(1) The abnormally segmented eggs can develop to normal embryos, while its ratio is a little lower than that in the normal eggs. The irregular-formed eggs, however, can merely proceed their cell division forming irregular patterns but cannot start morphogenesis.(2) Polar vital staining, which occurred in the normal eggs, was also observed in the abnormally segmented eggs with brilliant green or with neutrel red. However, different from the normal eggs, the connection between the morphological axis and the staining gradient could not be discerned. In the irregular-formed eggs, the polar staining was not or was hardly observable.(3) The abnormally segmented eggs can develop into normal embryos, whereas the irregular-formed eggs can merely proceed their cell division but cannot differentiate themselves morphogenetically.
Several studies on the silver-nitrate reduction in the cells of five species of the submerged plants were carried out. 1. The reduction occurred as in the land plants, but the specific blackening of chloroplast (so-called “Molisch's reaction”) was most typical when the material was heated with neutral silver reagent. 2. The light and dark conditions in procedure had no influence on the occurrence of reduction. 3. The speeific blackening of chloroplast does not always indicate the localization of the reducing agent in it. It is due to the secondary deposition of reduced silver on chloroplast, and the agent is rather contained diffusely through the vacuole and cytoplasm. 4. The parallelism between the reaction intensity of chloroplast and the starch and chlorophyll contents was not always absolute, but it was connected rather more closely with the vital activity of cell and chloroplast. 5. The trials of detection of reducing substances by means of the chromatography showed the silver reducing spots in the position of Rf 0.08 in all cases and also of 0.13 in a few cases. These spots were not ascorbic acid, DOPA, reducing sugar, tannin nor flavonoid etc. For the extraction of these substances the presence of metaphosphoric acid was necessarily required as a stabilizer. The identification of these substances is as yet remained unsettled. 6. It must be considered, from these facts, that the Giroud-Leblond's procedure or silver-nitrate reagent are not always sufficiently specific in all cases for ascorbic acid in the cytochemical use.
To prove the two-nuclear migration from the diploid inoculum into the large haploid mycelium in the diploidisation by the compatible diploid mycelium, the experiment was performed, using Coprinus macrorhizus f. microsporus. The legitimate combinations, e.g. AB''(A'B+Ab) in which the nuclei AB' and A'B derived from the same fruit-body and the nucleus Ab derived from a different one, were made. In some of these combinations, the nucleus Ab advanced more rapidly than A'B; and, when the nucleus A'B arrived late at the terminal cell of the haplont AB', conjugation occurred between the nuclei Ab and A'B. The above results may be explicable from the assumption that the speed of nuclear migration and the conjugation affinity between two compatible nuclei are controlled by the modifiers.
The procambial strands, initiated at the base of the axillary bud, elongate basipetally and are connected with those of the mother axis. A few branch traces follow the horizontal courses at the node, or become blended with the nodal plexus, and thus their further accurate behaviours are difficult to trace. The nodal plexus is of the secondary origin in the histogenesis, and if those branch traces are left out of consideration, most of the trace strands from the axillary bud are connected, as a rule, with the vertical bundles of the mother axis at the node; i.e. the outermost peripheral (outer) and compound (inner) bundles of the axillary bud are connected respectively with outer and inner axial bundles situated at the side facing the axillary bud. A few branch traces pass through the node downwards without being connected with any bundle of the mother axis. In the case of the developed axillary shoot, some branch traces seem to pass across the centre of the mother axis and join directly with the axial peripheral bundles, situated at the side opposite to the axillary shoot. As such a behaviour of branch traces is not confirmed in the early stage of the bud, it is interpreted as a secondary modification caused by the predominant development of one of the nodal horizontal strands which are initiated between some branch traces and vertical axial bundles. The pattern of the vascular connection of the axillary shoot with its mother axis will be discussed in the following paper of this series. Before the intercalary elongation of the shoot takes place, an arc of meristematic tissue becomes initiated closely attaching to the outermost peripheral procambial strands of the stem, and later it develops into a dome-shape. From the summit of the dome the adventitious root apex is initiated, and then some horizontal procambial strands are differentiated between several points of the dome base and its adjacent compound procambial strands of the stem; thus the vascular connection of the stem with adventitious root is established. The horizontal strands above mentioned usually elongate more deeply towards the centre of the stem, but they are not connected there with any of vertical axial bundles.