1) Far-red light given to Pharbitis seedlings preceding a 16-hour dark period inhibits flowering. This flower inhibitory effect is intensified with increasing duration of the far-red irradiation and becomes marked with 8-hour irradiation. 2) The flower inhibitory effect of the far-red light is obvious even if the intensity is decreased to 10erg/cm.2/sec. 3) Far-red light of 2-4 hours preceding a 12-hour dark period promotes flowering, but the same light of 8 hours inhibits completely. 4) Red light preceding the inductive dark period has no influence upon flowering response whether a 16- or 12-hour dark period follows. 5) The flower inhibitory effect of far-red light preceding the inductive dark period can be reversed by red light applied just before the dark treatment. 6) Incandescent light of 10lux promotes flowering remarkably when applied for 2-4 hours preceding the 12-hour dark period, but inhibits when given for 8 hours or more. 7) Daylight fluorescent light of 10lux which includes little far-red light promotes flowering remarkably when preceding the 12-hour dark period. A discussion was given of the possible role of far-red light and low intensity light preceding the inductive dark period in flowering responses.
The primary production in the Kuroshio off the southern midcoast of Japan was measured during the cruises in August 1957 and in May 1958. The chlorophyll amount in the sea water was high in the littoral region and it generally decreased with increasing distance from the coast. The mean value of chlorophyll content in euphotic zone showed roughly from 0.23 to 2.2mg./m.3 in May and 0.1 to 2.0mg./m.3 in August. A good linear relationship can be seen between the transparency and the mean value of chlorophyll content in the euphotic zone and this suggests that the standing crop of phytoplankton can be estimated from the depth of transparency. The definite correlation was also found between the chlorophyll content and the water temperature at least during these two months. The photosynthetic rate was measured by the C14 method at opitmum light intensity (15klux) and in situ water temperature. The productivity of water in the littoral region was about 1 to 4mg. C/m.3/hr., and 0.1 to 0.6mg. C/m.3/hr. in the pelagic area. These values correspond to 1 to 3mg. C/mg. chl./hr., and 0.3 to 1.7mg. C/mg. chl./hr., respectively. Based on these values, the primary production was determined by the tank and chlorophyll methods. Daily production ranged in the pelagic area from 70 to 150mg. C/m.2/day and from 300 to 500mg. C/m.2/day in the coastal region. It may be inferred from these results that the Kuroshio off the southern midcoast of Japan belongs to one of the low productive area of the ocean.
(1) Ferrous sulfate, at the concentration of 10-5M, promotes the elongation of Avena coleoptile sections in IAA solution, at the concentration of 0.05mg./l. (2) When the straight growth test is carried out, ferrous sulfate, at concentrations higher than 10-5M, prevents the disappearance of IAA from the test solution during the incubation period. (3) Ferrous sulfate does not promote the elongation of Avena coleoptile sections in NAA. (4) The promotive action of ferrous sulfate on the elongation of the sections appears obviously when IAA is used at low concentrations and the incubation period is prolonged. (5) Ferrous sulfate, at the concentration having promotive effect on the section growth, inhibits the action of IAA-oxidase obtained from Avena coleoptiles. (6) The promoting effect of ferrous sulfate is larger in the earlier period of the Avena curvature test, and go decreasing thereafter. (7) Ferrous sulfate promotes the transport of both IAA and NAA through a given length of the coleoptile section. (8) Based on the data summarized above, it may be concluded that ferrous sulfate acts promotively on the Avena curvature test through its promoting effect on the transport or infiltration of auxin, and on the straight growth test through its inhibiting effect on IAA-oxidase. (9) Therefore, the Avena curvature test sensitized by the application of ferrous ions seems to be useful for the detection of small amounts of auxin.
The mating system of Psilocybe coprophila was analyzed, using K-and T-stocks. As shown in Tables 1a and 2, in legitimate matings, clamps were observed microscopically both in the contact zone between two mycelia and on either side of it. Clamps were also found in all common B-factor matings, but in these pairings the formation of clamps was restricted to the contact zone only. Therefore, when only the contact zone is examined for clamps, a bipolar mating pattern is obtained. However, when the mycelia on either side of it are also tested for clamps, tetrapolarity is unmasked. All matings where clamp-bearing hyphae had been observed were tested for their capacity to produce fruit-bodies under the same culture conditions. The same test was also done for individual monosporous mycelia. Some of the mycelia gave rise to haploid fruit-bodies bearing ample basidiospores, all of which were of the same mating type as the parent mycelia. As shown in Table 1b, perfectly developed fruit-bodies with abundant spores were obtained not only in all legitimate matings but also in some common B-factor matings. The fruit-bodies from legitimate matings produced spores of all four mating types; whereas, well-developed fruit-bodies from common B-factor matings produced only spores of the two parental types (Table 3b). Pairings between the monosporous mycelia derived from common B-factor matings showed bipolar pattern, where clamps were found only in the contact zone, but never on either side of it (Table 3 a). Barrages are irregularly manifested in common A-factor matings, in common B-factor matings, and in other matings (Tables 1a and 2). Thus, the barrages in this fungus seem to be of haphazard appearance but not of heritable characters.
The formation of anthraqulnone pigments in the mycelia of Penicillium islandicum Sopp. NRRL 1175 during cultivation on different kinds of media was studied in detail by means of paper chromatography. 1) Seven pigments, erythroskyrin, skyrin, oxyskyrin, chrysophanol, pigment-0.8, pigment-C and flavoskyrin, were detected in the mycelium grown on complete medium (Table 1). 2) Within a range of pH 5.4 to 7.6, the formation of the mycelial pigments did not depend on pH-value of the culture media used (Table 2). However, the occurrence of the pigments, in particular pigment-0.8 and flavoskyrin, was found to be affected by the nutrients added to the medium (Table 2, 3 and 4). 3) After several generations obtained by successive inoculation of conidia on the minimal medium, the biosynthetic capacity of the mold to form both pigment-0.8 and flavoskyrin is completely abolished, and can not be recovered even after inoculation on the complete medium (Table 4). 4) From the data obtained in relation to the sequence of pigment synthesis in the mycelia (Table 5-8), it is suggested that skyrin is a primary product in the biosynthesis of anthraquinone pigments and oxyskyrin is derived therefrom through oxidation of its 7-CH3 group. Both pigment-0.8 and flavoskyrin are probably formed in the final step of biosynthesis. 5) Since the structure of erythroskyrin remains unsettled, any final evidence could not be obtained at present for the biosynthetic interrelationship between erythroskyrin and other mycelial pigments, However, in view of the fact that the formation of skyrin takes place in growing mycelia even after erythroskyrin has ceased to be formed (Table 3 and 4), it is suggested that erythroskyrin is not involved in biosynthetic route of skyrin as an intermediate.