The utilizability of choline sulfate ester as sulfur source was examined in twenty-nine fungi belonging to the following Classes: Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti. Choline sulfate ester was found to be utilized as sulfur source in Aspergillales, Pyrenomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti. In some cultures with Alternaria tenuis an accumulation of certain amounts of sulfate ions in the residual culture medium was detected. No utilization was revealed in yeasts. (Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Candida), a single exception being Hansenula anomala which consumed the substance to give a fairly abundant growth in its presence in the culture medium. Choline sulfate ester was not utilized in the Phycomycetes species studied (Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor, Phycomyces, Absidia), with the single exception of Rhizopusoryzae, which utilized the substance to show a fairly good growth in its presence. All the Basidiomycetes species examined did dot appreciably consume choline sulfate ester but all of them showed enhanced growth in the presence of this substance.
1. The “proteid vacuoles” in the cytoplasm of egg cell of Pinus thunbergii were studied with staining methods. 2. The proteid vacuoles first appear in the central cell. With maturation of the egg cell, they increase more and more in number and in their stainability by Heidenhain's iron-hematoxylin and protein-staining reactions. The number and the stainability of them reach the maximum state just before fertilization. After fertilization they begin to decrease in number and nearly completely disappear by the time of proembryo formation at the base of the egg cell. 3. The proteid vacuoles contain not only protein but also PNA and a little polysaccharides. 4. In all the stages of oogenesis, the proteid vacuoles are separated into three groups by centrifuge treatment; the first of them are moved toward the centrifugal end, the second toward the centripetal end and the remaining ones are distributed in the middle part of the cell. Those gathered at the centripetal end under centrifugal force are propable to contain lipids. 5. The nutritive significance of the proteid vacuoles in the maturation of egg cell and in the early development of proembryo is discussed.
Internodal and “branchlet” cells of Characeae can be plasmolysed by Ca(NO3)2 during as long as 1-10 weeks while keeping the protoplasmic streaming active. In the course of the long-lasting plasmolysis the protoplasts are subjected to a remarkable deformation, and concomitantly, the streaming pattern of protoplasm suffers pronounced modifications.
1. Phenolic substances involved in the browning reaction in the leaves of Viburnum were examined. It was found that chlorogenic acid was the principal substance, which is always accompanied by the isomers. 2. A substance, which gives the same color reactions as chlorogenic acid but differs from the known isomers, was found in the seven species. 3. Phenolase activity was estimated in nine species and it was found that phenolase-chlorogenic acid system was responsible for the browning reaction. 4. The phenolase-chlorogenic acid reaction and the color formation were promoted by the addition of aromatic amine and amino acid, and a presumption as to the formation in vivo of brown substance was made.
(1) A blue anthocyanin was isolated in crystalline state from the petals of “Awobana”.plant (Commelina communis L, var. hortensis Makino) (cf. Fig. 1), and was shown to be identical in all respects with the blue crystals previously obtained from the petals of wild commelina (Commelina communis L. var. communis). We propose the name “commelinin” for this blue anthocyanin. (2) Commelinin seems to be a high molecular compound, which is non-dialysable through semi-permeable membranes. The estimation of the individual components gave the following results: p-coumaric acid 11.83%, delphinidin (as chloride) 27.33% and glucose 30.78%, Mg 0.42%, K 1.47% and Na 0.29%, respectively. Probably, Na is not inherent to the pigment molecule. (3) On treatment with 1% hydrochloric acid, commelinin loses its alkali metals altogether. The resultant product, which is still bound with Mg as before, is also convertible into brilliant blue crystals (cf. Fig. 4). Therefore, it is concluded that the blue color of commelinin is not due to an alkali phenolate of anthocyanin. (4) Mg remains fixed to the pigment molecule even after treatment either with EDTA or cation exchangers. Of course, no perceptible color change occurs in these cases. (5) Besides, commelinin seems to contain an appreciable amount (25-30%) of an unknown substance, which is pale yellowish in color and is presumed to be a flavonoid. (6) To sum up the analytical results obtained, commelinin is a co-ordination compound, in which one atom of Mg combines four molecules of awobanin (delphinidin-3: 5-dimonoglucoside+p-coumaric acid) around it, and an unknown flavonoid-like substance is further brought into association with it (cf. Table 3 and 4).