J. Parker reported that sugars in coniferous leaves are physiologically significant for cold resistance. On the other hand, the nature of sugars occurring in the leaves of conifers has been considered to have some taxonomical significances as stilbenes and flavonoids. In view of these situations we have attempted to examine the sugars of coniferous leaves throughout the year. Studies were made by means of paper chromatography with twentynine species and one variety. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Fructose, glucose and saccharose are almost regularly found throughout the year. 2. In winter the leaves of ever-green conifers contain raffinose besides fructose, glucose and saccharose, and those of Taxus, Araucaria and Sciadopitys contain stachyose in addition to these. 3. In leaves of deciduous conifers, the saccharose content decreases before the fall of leaf. 4. In Larix, Pinus, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia, Sequoia, Sequoiadendron, Taxodium, Chamaecyparis and Thujopsis, the saccharose content of leaves seems to be less than that in other conifers. 5. In respect of the sugars in the leaves, Metasequoia appears to be more closely related to Sequoia, Sequoiadendron, Taxodium and Glyptostrobus than to other members of the Taxodiaceae.
1.An unknown pigment spot f (designated by Shibata et al.5), ) found in a series of anthraquinones in Penicillium islandicum Sopp. NRRL 1036 was purified paperchromatographically and identified as dicatenarin by paperchromatographic studies on degradation products of spot f by means of reductive cleavage (Table 1 and Fig. 1). 2.Based on the facts that the spot f is a dimer of catenarin, and that almost simultaneous appearance and disappearance have been encountered in these two pigments (Table 4 in the Literature 3), the biosynthetic route for the formation of anthraquinones in Penicilliumisladicum Sopp. that was proposed in the preceding paper (Fig. 4 in the Literature 4) is modified in part as illustrated in Fig. 2.