Experiments were undertaken in order to determine whether shikimic acid in leaves of higher plants is synthesized through glycolysis or not. Ginkgo biloba and Eucalyptus nitens leaves were used, and the following results were obtained. (1) The content of shikimic acid shows a remarkable diurnal change. (2) When the leaves are kept under dark conditions, the content of shikimic acid is significantly reduced after two hours from the beginning of the dark period, but the content returns to the normal level after four to six hours from the beginning. (3) After absorption of respiratory inhibitors which prevent normal reactions of glycolysis, the synthesis of shikimic acid in the leaves is suppressed. From these results, it is concluded that glycolysis might be of some importance in the biosynthesis of shikimic acid in higher plant leaves.
During the cruise of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in December1960-April 1961, the samples for chlorophyll measurement in the surface water were collected. The chlorophyll distribution in the Indian and the Antarctic Oceans was considerably related to the character of the water masses. The highest value was obtained in the Antarctic Surface Water mass, the next came in the Subantarctic Upper Water mass, and the low values were observed in the Indian Ocean. The chlorophyll a concentration was 0.15-0.6mg/m3 for the Antarctic Ocean, and 0.02-0.2mg/m3 for the Indian Ocean. The total chlorophyll content in the Antarctic and the Indian Oceans was 0.4-1.2mg/m3 and 0.1-0.3mg/m3, respectively. The former values were approximately equal to those in the Oyashio area, and the latter were equal to those in the Kuroshio area.
1. High-vitality and high-frequency components of the undergrowth of red-pine forests, in which the cover degree of Pinus densiflora was higher than 4.5, were tabulated for the wide ranges of Japan (mainly according to Yoshioka6)) and South Korea (near Seoul). 2. Leaf extract and root extract of P. densiflora inhibited heavily the seed germination of weeds, e. g. Amaranthus and Achyranthes, which did not naturally grow in the red-pine forest. No inhibition was observed in Pinus seed. 3. Soils taken from the red-pine forests of various localities were detected inhibiting the growth of plants. Amaranthus, Achyranthes, Phytolacca, Chenopodium, Setaria and Galinsoga, which rarely appeared in the red-pine forest with very low vitalities. The growth of high-vitality components, Pinus, Miscanthus, Atractylis and Paederia, was the same or slightly better on the red-pine-forest soils than on ordinary nursery soils. 4. The growth-inhibitive effect of Pinus extracts was demonstrated in low-vitality plants, Amaranthus, Achyranthes and Setaria, by planting on an artificial soil supplied with mineral nutrients. On the contrary, the high-vitality plants, Pinus and. Miscanthus, did not show any depression of their growth. 5. Negative geotropism was observed in the roots of Amaranthus seeds which were sprouted on filter paper wetted respectively by Pinus shoot extract, Quercus seed extract and tannic acid solution. 6. The chemical nature of the germination and growth inhibitors secreted by P. densiflora was preliminarily investigated. In the Pinus extract as well as in the red-pine-forest-soil extract, the fluorescence of p-coumaric acid-like substance was detected by paper-chromatography. 7. It was suggested that the floristic composition of a plant community may sometimes be decided by chemical influences on other species, allelopathy.
1) α-Amylase activity can be detected in the seedlings of Dianthus barbatus. 2) A slight α-amylase activity is observed in the flower of Triticum aestivum. About a week after anthesis, the activity attains its maximum value which is nearly as much as the value seen in seedings 2 days after sowing at 15°. 3) Formation of α-amylase in the seedlings of Dianthus barbatus and Triticum aestivum is inhibited by light in the early stage of germination at lower temperatures 20° in the former plant and 15° in the latter. Formation of α-amylase in these seedlings is then noticeably promoted by light on the 4th or 5th day after sowing, so that there may be some intermediate stage in which the formation is not affected by light at all.
1) The chromosome numbers and karyotypes were studied in eight species, one variety, and two subspecies belonging to Subfamily Carduoideae (Compositae) of Japan. 2) The numbers of somatic chromosomes were counted in two species of Gnaphalium, two subspecies of Anaphalis, and one variety of Leontopodium for the first time. 3) The basic numbers of chromosomes were found to be 7 in Gnaphalium, and 14 in Anaphalis. Leontopodium has 13 chromosomes which are derived from 14. 4) All the members of the Gnaphaliineae studied, except G. japonicum, G. purpureum (4n) and L. hayachinense (8n), have diploid forms in the karyotype. 5) A karyological similarity was found between A. margaritacea subsp. angustior and A. margaritacea subsp. yedoensis, and between A. sinica and A. alpicola respectively. 6) The genera Gnaphalium, Anaphalis and Leontopodium were discussed from the karyotypical and plant geographical stand points.