1) The karyotype analysis is carried out on nine species, one subspecies of Cacalia and Syneilesis. 2) There can be found that Syneilesis palmata (or Cacalia krameri) is karyologically different from the member of Cacalia (Bucacalia) and shows to have a specific constitution of the karyotype. 3) All the members of the genus Cacalia studied are classified into four types from the view point of the karyotype and Sect. Bucacalia is subdivided into three different subtypes. 4) Most of the genus Cacalia studied have, in general, characteristic asymmetrical karyotypes which are derived from the higher polyploidization of a basic number of ten (or five). 5) A close phylogenic relationship between C. hastata ssp. farfaraefolia and C. hastata ssp. orientalis is suggested. 6) The relation between the genus Cacalia and the genus Syneilesis is discussed from the karyological stand point.