The anthocyanin in purplish black berries of Daphniphyllum macropodum was found to be a mixture of at least four component anthocyanins. Among them, one component was obtained in a crystalline form and shown to be composed of delphinidin, glucose and xylose, each in molecular proportion. An anthocyanin as such has not been reported in the literature. For the present, the name “daphniphyllin” may be assigned to this pigment. By a series of analytical experiments, daphniphyllin was identified as delphinidin-3-xyloglucoside (probably as primveroside).
The undercooling points of leaf tissues in Aspidistra, Viburnum and Fatsia were determined by the freezing curve of leaf pieces. The relation between the undercooling points and frost resistance both in mature and immature leaves, and the effect of the cooling rate on the undercooling points were investigated. 1. In Aspidistra and Viburnum, the epidermal cells in mature leaves were more frost-hardy than those in the immature ones. In immature leaves, the injury caused by freezing occurred with the beginning of freezing in the tissues, while in mature leaves no injury appeared till the freezing of tissues was nearly completed. 2. The undercooling points in leaf pieces showed a relatively small fluctuation under any definite cooling condition. The undercooling points of the mature leaves of Aspidistra were always lower than those of the immature ones, while in Viburnum, the undercooling points of immature leaves showed lower values than those of the mature ones. This was observed at any cooling rates, ranging from 1°to 7°per minute. 3. The effect of the cooling rate on the undercooling points was studied under the cooling conditions of 1°-7°per minute at 0°. In summer the temperature range of the fluctuation of undercooling points was small at a slow cooling rate, and became larger with the increasing cooling rate, but in winter it was nearly the same at any cooling rates. 4. The undercooling points were gradually lowered with increasing cooling rates, that is, the undercooled state was broken at higher temperatures in slowly cooled leaf pieces than in rapidly cooled ones. 5. The relation between frost resistance and the undercooling point in leaf piece is various according to the species of plants. It is therefore not adequate to regard the value of the undercooling point alone as an index of frost resistance in plants.
Fertilization, embryogeny and development of the seed and fruit in Flaveriarepanda has been described. Fertilization is porogamous. Usually one, at times both the synergids are destroyed by the pollen tube. Basal part of a synergid and the antipodals, probably haustorial, are persistent. Failure of triple fusion and double fertilization are responsible for abnormal behaviour of the embryo sacs and endothelium, resulting in sterile seeds. Embryo development conforms to the Asterad type-Senecio variation. Development of seed and fruit has been described in detail. The endothelium ultimately collapses and becomes closely appressed as a cuticle on the persistent layer of the endosperm. Thick walled epidermis and remnants of some layers of the integument form the testa. The pericarp is differentiated anatomically in a highly remarkable manner.
A new species Nardia arnelliana Gro. from Africa (Ruwenzori) is described and figured. It belongs to a newly described section Breidlerion Gro. with the type: N.breidleri (Limpr.) Lindb. The genus Nardia Gray is new to Africa.
To study the effect of temperature on the development and the producibility of opium and its components, two experiments were performed on opium poppy seeds, one in 1957 and the other in 1961. The seeds were treated for 20 days at four temperatures, 20°, 13°, 6°, and 2°. The water content of the seeds during the treatment was adjusted to 50% of the weight of seed in the 13°, 6° and 2° treatments, but to prevent the germination during the treatment, it was restrained to 35% in the 20°treatment. In the 6°and 2°treatments, the promotion of development, the increase of opium yield and the increase of the morphine content in opium were observed in the two experiments. Contrary to this, in the 20°and 13°treatments, definite results were not obtained in any experiment. In 1962, in order to see the effect of the water content of the seeds during the treatment, the seeds, their water content being adjusted to 50%, 40%, 30%, 20% and 10%, were treated at 6°for 20 days. The promotion of development was observed in the 50%, 40%, and 30% treatments, the increase of opium yield in the 50%, 40%, 30% and 20% treatments, and the increase of the morphine content in opium in all the treatments. However, the effects in these observations were weaker as the water content of the seeds decreased. The results showed that not only the temperature but also the water content of the seeds during the treatment played an important role in promoting the development and producibility of opium and its components. In opium poppy, low temperature and high water content gave pharmaceutically a good result.