The influence of different composition of medium on the formation of mitochondria, the developmental process and the origin of mitochondria were studied by electron microscopy in the cell of Saccharomyces Strain No. 24843 (Lindegren's Carbondale Breeding Stock). The formation of mitochondria in aerobically grown yeast is more promoted by ethanol than by glucose as carbon source, and it is also promoted by adding ergosterol to the medium. The mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum-like structure disappear in anaerobically grown yeast, but they still exist in 10% of cells which have grown on the medium with ergosterol. The yeast-mitochondria are enveloped by a pair of unit membranes. The total thickness of the mitochondrial membrane is 200 to 225Å. The unit membrane is about 75Å thick and is made up of the two electron-opaque layers, each about 25Å thick, separated by a light space of the same thickness. The origin of yeast-mitochondria is supposed to have an intimate relation with the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum-like structure. This kind of membrane is supposed to roll up and elaborately fold each other. The inner membrane infold from some parts into the matrix, and form typical mitochondrial cristae. Then mature mitochondria are formed.
1. The author discussed the phylogenetic relationship of species in the genus Mosla (Lamiaceae) mainly based on the mode of appearance of the constituents of essential oil. 2. Five elements of formation of essential oils were pointed out in this genus (Fig. 1, A. B. C. D. E) and phylogeny of each species was shown in a cubic system according to their modes of appearance (Fig. 2).
This paper deals with the results of the karyological studies on fifteen moss species. In order to obtain vivid plants, a new method of culture was employed. In the cultures of these mosses, innovations were rarely produced. The regenrated young shoots from the fragments of stem or from the removed leaves were used for the karyological studies. In these karyological studies, metaphase and heteropycnotic chromosomes in the mitotic cells of gametophyte were observed. The chromosome numbers and karyotypes were determined as follows: Bryoxiphium japonicum K(n)=14=V(H)+2V+2J+8(4v+4j)+v(h) Blindia japonica K(n)=14=2V(H)+2V+2J+6(4v+2j)+2m(h) Dicranella heteromalla K(n)=14=2V(H)+2V+2J+6(4v+2j)+2m(h) Brothera leana K(n)=12=2V(H)+2V+2J+4(2v+2j)+2v(h) Oncophorus crispifolius K(n)=14=2V(H)+2V+2J+6(4v+2j)+2m(h) Trachypus humilis K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(5v+2j)+m(h) Pseudospiridentopsis horrida K(n)=11=V(H)+2J+7(5v+2j)+m(h) Dolichomitra cymbifolia K(n)=11=V(H)+2V+J+6(4v+2j)+v(h) Dolichomitriopsis diversiformis K(n)=11=V(H)+2V+J+6(4v+2j)+m(h) Isothecium subdiversiforme K(n)=11=V(H)+2V+J+6(4v+2j)+m(h) Fauriella tenuis K(n)=11=V(H)+V+2J+6(5v+j)+m(h) Fabronia matsumurae K(n)=11=V(H)+V+J+7(5v+2j)+m(h) Schwetschkeopsis japonica K(n)=11=V(H)+2V+7(5v+2j)+m(h) Okamuraea brachydictyon K(n)=11=2V(H)+J+7(5v+2j)+m(h) O. hakoniensis K(n)=11=2V(H)+J+7(5v+2j)+m(h).