Differences in metabolic patterns between the parent strain of Staphylococcusaureus 209-P and its cyanide resistant mutant strain isolated in our laboratory were comparatively examined. Growth rate of the cyanide resistant cells in cyanide-free medium was lower than that of the parent cells, while growth rate of the former in medium containing 1mM cyanide was higher than that of the latter. There were found to be differences in oxidative activities of glucose, several organic acids and amino acids (L-leucine, L-glutamate and DL-alanine) by the parent and the resistant strains. Succinate oxidation of the parent cells was markedly inhibited by cyanide, azide and carbon monoxide, but that of the resistant cells was not inhibited by them at all. On the contrary, flavin inhibitors such as acriflavin and quinine inhibit the oxidation of the succinate by resistant cells more considerably than by the parent cells. Malonate and p-chloromercuribenoate were, as expected, powerfull inhibitors of succinate oxidation by both strains. In the cyanide resistant cells, one new cytochrome band was observed at 552mμ instead of cytochrome b1 (557mμ) of the parent cells. However, a-type cytochrome (600-602mμ) of the resistant cells was identical with that of the parent cells.
In view of the importance of organic acids for the uptake of cations in higher plants, studies of organic acids were made in some calcareous red algae belonging to Corallinaceae and Chaetangiaceae with a view to obtaining some informations on the mechanism of lime incrustation. For the sake of comparison some non-calcareous algae were also examined for organic acids. 1. A variety of organic acids, malic, succinic, fumaric, oxaloacetic, citric, α-ketoglutaric, pyruvic and oxalic acids together with still unidentified acids were found in calcareous as well as in non-calcareous red algae. 2. In every alga examined the content of malic acid was the highest followed by citric and succinic acids. 3. The organic acid content of calcareous red algae was found to be exceedingly large, amounting to approximately five times greater than that of non-calcareous red algae. 4. The abundance of organic acids content is characteristic of calcareous algae, independent of their taxonomical position.
Seasonal changes in the photosynthesis-light curves and photosynthesis-temperature curves of phytoplankton from a eutrophic pond Shinjiike in the University of Tokyo campus, Tokyo, were investigated especially in relation to the change in water temperature. 1. In May and August, 1963, two peaks were observed in the chlorophyll concentration and in the productivity of surface water in Shinjiike Pond. 2. Values of Ik, an index which denotes the light-saturation in the photosynthesis-light curves, for phytoplankton in Shinjiike Pond were high in summer and low in winter. No depression of photosynthetic rate at high light intensity was observed in summer as well as in winter. 3. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis of phytoplankton in Shinjiike Pond was low in spring, rose gradually with rise in water temperature until the highest (ca. 30°) in August was reached, and fell again gradually with lowering of water temperature. A linear relationship was obtained between the water temperature and the optimum temperature for photosynthesis for the period April-November. 4. From December to March the optimum temperature for photosynthesis remained rather constant at about 20°, except for January when an optimum of 15° was obtained.
Affinities of Streblochaete, a monotypic grass genus including S. longiarista Pilger, were investigated. This genus is typically festucoid in embryo and leaf structure and is very close to the tribe Meliceae of the Festucoideae not only in these anatomical features but also in morphological characteristics, particularly floral morphology. It clearly differs in various respects from other tribes in which it had previously been classified. Streblochaete is therefore referred to the Meliceae. Mention is also made of the delimitation and the antiquity of the Meliceae.
In order to make clear the decomposing process of shikimic acid in higher plants, several experiments were made by using hypocotyls of mung bean seedlings. Slices of the hypocotyls were cultured in solutions with or without 0.5% shikimic acid. 5-Dehydroshikimic and protocatechuic acids were detected as decomposition products of shikimic acid in the culture solution containing shikimic acid. It is likely that a similar catabolic process of shikimic acid distributes in both microorganisms and higher plants. My sincerest thanks are due to Prof. M. Hasegawa and Dr. S. Yoshida of the Tokyo Metropolitan University, who kindly helped me in many ways and read through the original manuscript.
The pale purple flower of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) contains only one delphinidin glycoside. This was obtained in a crystalline state. A series of analytical experiments have shown that the glycoside is composed of delphinidin (1mol.) and glucose (2mols), and that the latter links with the 3-hydroxyl group of the former, i.e. 3-diglucoside of delphinidin. The details of following data are described in this paper: the methods of extraction, purification and crystallization, besides, chemical properties, elementary analysis, hydrolysis, UV absorption specra, IR spectra, paper electrophoresis, Rf values, etc.
Chromosome numbers of 29 species in the following 19 genera of grasses were reported on the basis of collections from Madagascar: Agrostis, Arundinella, Brachiaria, Digitaria, Eragrostis, Helictotrichon, Hyparrhenia, Imperata, Lasiorrhachis, Neyraudia, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Pentaschistis, Poa, Sacciolepis, Sporobolus, Stenotaphrum, Thuarea. First counts were made for 11 species and one genus (Lasiorrhachis), and the cytotaxonomy of several species was discussed.
The effect of high temperature on the meiotic division was studied. The material plants, Trillium kamtschaticum (2n=10), were treated at 27° for two weeks at various stages of meiotic prophase I. 1) As regards the chromosome behavior from prophase I to metaphase I, most of chromosomes were asynaptic when the treatment was carried out at leptotene, while desynaptic univalents and precocious type bivalents were both seen in the treatment at early or mid-zygotene; and almost all homologous chromosomes showed the normal configuration in the treatment at late zygotene and pachytene. 2) Abnormal PMCs at telophase I were classified in four types according to the pattern of nuclear distribution. Type 1 cells (apolar) occurred with a high frequency in the treatment at leptotene, while type 2 (dispersed-polar) as well as type 3 (tripolar, unequally bipolar and monopolar) appeared frequently when the treatment was carried out at mid-zygotene and early zygotene, respectively. 3) In the case of treatment at a stage earlier than mid-zygotene, the cell division was affected and the PMCs could not proceed further than the first division; however, they have entered the second division when the treatment was effective at a stage later than late zygotene, and the frequency of aberration at telophase II was higher than that in the controls. 4) The development process of the mitotic apparatus in the first division was discussed. It was suggested that the normal division of the pole organizer (centrosome) might take place at early zygotene stage.
1) The external morphological characteristics of about 130 seedlings of Prunus yedoensis were studied. A few typical P. lannesiana var. speciosa and P. subhirtella var. pendula form. ascenders were found among them and many others, ranging from speciosa to ascenders with wide distribution of various character combinations. Needless to say, a few P. yedoensis-like seedlings were also found. 2) Fourteen hybrids between speciosa and ascendens grew well. Although they showed minor differences from each other, they belonged all to the yedoensis group from the morphological point of view. But they had larger leaves and flowers and more stamens than P. yedoensis, and the flower color of all plants except one was of a fainter pink than in P. yedoensis. 3) Hybrids between P. lannesiana var. speciosa and P. subhirtella var. pendula had more delicate branches and a little smaller leaves and flowers than P. yedoensis. In general P. yedoensis may be assumed to be a hybrid between speciosa and ascendens rather than between speciosa and pendula. 4) Nineteen hybrids between speciosa and yedoensis were observed. In the hybrids between speciosa and ascendens, hairiness of leaves, peduncles and calyxes, and umbelled inflorescence were assumed to be dominant to hairless and corymb, respectively. In all hybrids mentioned above, these dominancies were also recognized. 5) Funabara-yoshino, which was found on Funabara-pass in Izu, had somewhat larger flowers and leaves and a few more stamens than P. yedoensis, but was very similar in the other characters to P. yedoensis and showed heterosis like P. yedoensis. Therefore this flowering cherry tree is also assumed to be a new natural hybrid between speciosa and ascendens. 6) Kurama-zakura which has been clutivated in Kumamoto since long ago has leaves and flowers somewhat larger than those of yedoensis and its branches are slightly bent. But the other characters and appearance of heterosis are the same as in yedoensis. Accordingly this tree may be another hybrid between speciosa and ascendens. 7) Midori-yoshino (P. yedoensis var. Nikaii Honda) has been cultivated in Hagi from Edo-period but is not encountered there now. All characters of these specimens are identical with those of yedoensis, except one character, namely white petal color. This plant is also assumed to be a hybrid between speciosa and ascendens and might have orginated in Izu and have spread as a garden plant from there. 8) I found some trees which could presumably be the offspring of yedoensis in Izu, Boso and Noto. Similar plants were found by some taxonomists. Some of them may be the offspring of yedoensis itself and the others may be that of the other hybrids of the same origin.