Lodicules of 288 species of grasses representing 146 genera were examined. The presence of microhairs on the lodicule epidermis was demonstrated in 55 species of 27 genera. The microhairs are very frequent in the Bambusoideae and the tribe Danthonieae of the Arundinoideae and, on the other hand, rare in the Oryzoideae, Eragrostoideae, Panicoideae and most tribes of the Arundinoideae. The hairs are usually rod-like and 40-90μ in length. Most of them are bicellular, but some with three or more cells occur along with two-celled hairs in several species of the tribes Bambuseae, Arundinarieae and Danthonieae. In the Festucoideae, no species were found to have lodicule microhairs. It seems evident that the Festucoideae are completely lacking in microhairs, not only on the leaves but also on the lodicules and other organs which arise in a foliar manner. Microhairs are abundant per lodicule in the great majority of species of the Bambusoideae, but are less common on lodicules of the other subfamilies. Bambusoid lodicules are leafy in shape and vascularization, and the presence of numerous microhairs may also be an indication of their primitive nature.
Most individuals of Impatiens balsamina show the spiral phyllotaxy with the divergence angle nearly similar to the limit value of the Fibonacci series. Although various patterns of the phyllotactic abnormality (Figs. 1-2) are often found, the individuals of those patterns were excluded from the statistical samples. Early and late varieties were cultivated in the same season or seeds of one variety were sown in different seasons. In one case, seedlings germinated in spring were cultivated in very poor soil. Samples thus obtained were compared with each other in respect of their frequency variation of the primary branch with a cathodic prophyll (Fig. 3, Fig. 4, A). It was suggested that the general trend of the frequency variation is, in the case of Impatiens balsamina, much more affected by the vegetative vigour of the plant rather than by the characteristics of the variety or photoperiodic reaction, while the frequency variation of the cathodic prophyll at the basal part of the main axis (A in Fig. 3) shows one pattern fundamentally common to each statistical sample. Statistical data concerning the cathodic position of the prophyll, in Impatiens balsamina and Kochia scoparia presented here, were compared to those of Erigeron sumatrensis and Xanthium canadense described in previous papers of the writer.
Callus derived from the stem and root of Crepis capillaris, and subcultured every two or three months was studied cytologically and morphologically. Among several media used for the cultivation, a compound medium of Reinert and White (1956) supplemented with 10ppm IBA proved best for the growth of this callus. On this medium, the secondary callus increased in a two-month period up to 26 times in weight when compared to the original weight. At the early stage of culture, the most frequent cell types (80%) were of the giant cell. But after 4-5 months of culture, the cell size began to become smaller, and in the last phase (the 17th month) the callus was composed almost only of small-sized cells (80%). Many of these small-sized cells were thick-walled. The rate of cells showing mitosis (metaphase) was 1.26% under the comparatively good conditions for cell division. No change in chromosome number was noticed at the 13th month, but the observation made at the 17th month revealed that 74% of cells was 4n and 16% was 8n.